Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically. Inbreeding (consanguineous marriages among humans) increases the rate of production of homozygous offspring. The prevalence of consanguinity and the degree of inbreeding vary from one population to another depending on ethnicity, religion, culture and geography. Global epidemiological studies have revealed that consanguineous unions have been significantly associated with increased susceptibility to various forms of inherited diseases. Homozygosity or autozygosity mapping is a powerful tool, capable of searching for genomic variants among small, isolated or endogamous populations. We recommend pre-marital genetic counselling for younger couples to understand the associated risks with consanguineous marriages and take necessary steps for raising their families. Furthermore, embryonic gene editing technologies would be of great help for affected families. This monograph briefly highlights the prevalence of consanguinity, associated risks and management strategies, which would help doctors, clinicians, academicians, researchers and general public.