This atlas of postmortem angiography provides a summary of techniques that have been developed and used in order to visualize the human vascular system. The indications, advantages, limitations, and pitfalls of the different techniques are explained in detail through the use of examples from real cases and a wealth of informative images, as well as knowledge from the latest scientific works. Helpful recommendations are made concerning interpretation of the obtained radiological images, which will allow readers to start their own work in the field of post-mortem angiography or to ease and improve their practice. The atlas has been edited and written by members of an international working group created in 2012, "Technical Working Group Post-mortem Angiography Methods" (TWGPAM), who for the first time summarize their experiences concerning this new approach. Since findings explaining the reasons for both natural and traumatic death are often hidden within the vascular system, post-mortem angiography is of the highest importance in elucidating cause of death and may represent the key to minimally invasive autopsy.
Part I: Introduction: Postmortem Imaging - Development and Historical Review.- PMI - A part of forensic medicine.- PMI - A transdisciplinary approach for objectified knowledge. Part II: Postmortem Angiography: PMA - A historical review.- PMA - and the thanatology of the heart-circulation system. Part III: PMA - the technical approach: PMA and the Virtangio system.- PMA and CT.- PMA and MRI.- PMA and contrast agent.- PMA and Database and storage. Part IV: PMA - The role of the radiographer: The new profession of forensic radiographer. PartV: Multiphase Postmortem Angiography: Neuro (Head).- Neck.- Heart.- Vascular system.- Lungs.- Gastro intestinal tract.- Abdominal Organs. Part VI: Post-mortem Angiography of the Extremities: Upper extremities.- Lower extremities. Part VII: In cases of natural death: Sudden cardiac death.- Systemic diseases, sepsis, multi-organ failure.- Other natural death. Part VIII: PMA and trauma: Blunt trauma.- Sharp trauma.- Shot.- Explosion, Thermic trauma.- Suffocation / Strangulation.- Intoxication.- Drowning.- Other traumatic death (Cardio-Inhibitor Reflex, electrocution).- Post-operative death. Part IX: Special casuistic cases: Forensic radiological diagnosis and reconstruction. Part X: PMA and clinical pathology (non-forensic cases): Heart surgery.- Intensive cardiology.- Intensive care unit.- Emergency medicine. Part XI: PMA - special studies: Children.- Decomposition.- Histology - Immuno-Histology.- Intravasal pressures.- Medical malpractice.- Animal model.- Selective angio. Part XII: PMA - in Teaching and clinical anatomy: PMA in student teaching.- PMA in clinical anatomy.