1 Introduction.- 1.1 Screening for dementia.- 1.2 Pragmatic diagnostic test accuracy studies.- 1.3 Data presentation.- 1.3.1 "Number needed" metrics.- 1.3.2 Likelihood to be diagnosed or misdiagnosed (LDM).- 1.3.3 Summary utility index (SUI) and its reciprocal (NNSU).- 2 Single-item cognitive screening questions.- 2.1 Dementia CQUIN question.- 2.2 Subjective Memory Complaint (SMC) Likert scale.- 3 Neurological signs.- 3.1 Attended alone sign.- 3.2 Attended with sign.- 3.3 Head turning sign.- 3.4 Applause sign.- 3.5 La maladie du petit papier.- 4 Cognitive screeners (1): Brief patient-performance scales.- 4.1 Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).- 4.2 Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP).- 4.3 Codex.- 4.4 Free-Cog.- 4.5 Mini-Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (MACE).- 4.6 Short Montreal Cognitive Assessment (s-MoCA).- 4.7 Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT).- 4.8 Test Your Memory (TYM) test.- 4.9 Hard-TYM (TYM-MCI).- 4.10 DemTect.- 5 Cognitive screeners (2): Longer patient-performance scales.- 5.1 Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE).- 5.2 Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R).- 5.3 Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).- 6 Cognitive screeners (3): Informant scales.- 6.1 AD8.- 6.2 Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE).- 6.3 Cambridge Behavioural Inventory (CBI).- 7 Depression screeners.- 7.1 Two question depression screener.- 7.2 Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9).- 7.3 Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD).- 8 Functional screeners.- 8.1 Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale.- 8.2 Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI).- 9 Sleep disorder screeners.- 9.1 Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire (JSQ).- 9.2 Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).- 10 Combining screeners (1): cognitive screeners.- 10.1 MMSE and MoCA.- 10.2 MMSE and IQCODE.- 10.3 MMSE and AD8.- 10.4 ACE-R and IQCODE.- 10.5 AD8 and 6CIT.- 10.6 AD8 and MoCA.- 10.7 AD8 and MACE.- 11 Combining screeners (2): other combinations.- 11.1 Single-item and cognitive screener: SMC Likert scale and MACE.- 11.2 Neurological signs: Triple.- 11.3 Functional and cognitive screener: IADL Scale and MMSE.- 11.4 Functional and cognitive screener: IADL Scale and ACE-R.- 12 Converting screeners: Linear regression equations.
This book draws on the author's experience in conducting pragmatic test accuracy studies on screening instruments for dementia/mild cognitive impairment.
To facilitate comprehension and assimilation, all data is presented in an easily accessible, succinct and user-friendly way by means of a structured tabular format that allows tests to be easily compared. The pragmatic design of studies ensures high external validity and generalizability for the test results.
The book includes a wealth of data on previously presented studies, as well as hitherto unreported test measures ("Number needed" metrics). It presents recently described and new diagnostic metrics (Likelihood to be diagnosed or misdiagnosed; Summary utility index; Number needed for screening utility); data from new studies on screeners (Attended with sign; Free-Cog; Two question depression screener; Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire; Triple test); and previously unpublished data (combination of SMC Likert and MACE; IADL Scale and MMSE). Given its scope, the book will be of interest to all professionals, beginners and seasoned experts alike, whose work involves the assessment of individuals with cognitive (memory) complaints.
A. J. Larner M.A. M.D. MRCP (UK) DHMSA Ph.D. is a Consultant Neurologist at the Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Liverpool, and a Society of Apothecaries' Honorary Lecturer in the History of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK.