This clinically oriented monograph series is designed to serve as an educational tool for practicing physicians who provide primary and preventive care to women. Each monograph is written and peer reviewed by experts and provides a concise review of a topic of significance to women. The focus is on the manifestation of conditions in women and their special needs, with emphasis on interventions appropriate to office practice. A self-assessment is provided for continuing medical education.It provides a basic science update of gender-specific pathophysiology. It includes case reports on challenging clinical situations. It features counseling points to establish a dialogue with patients. It includes complementary and alternative medicine highlights. It covers concerns for older women. It provides resources for referral, information, and support. The references are cited and graded according to the strength of the evidence.