Introduction. THE EQUIPMENT. Positive pressure ventilators. CPAP. Emerging modes for NIV. Extra corporeal CO2 removal. Interfaces. Quality control, service and maintenance and infection control. Humidifiers and drug delivery during NIV. How to start a patient on NIV. THE PRACTICE – ACUTE NIV. How to set up an acute NIV service. Education programs and assessment of staff competencies. Monitoring during acute NIV. Trouble shooting during acute NIV. Sedation and delirium. Timing of acute NIV. Why NIV works in acute respiratory failure. NIV in the real world (audit). THE PRACTICE – CHRONIC NIV. How to set up a chronic ventilator service. Diagnostic tests in the assessment of patient for HMV. Ultrasound. Patient education and discharge planning. Discharging the ventilator dependent patient. Monitoring during sleep during chronic NIV (SOMNO NIV). Long term follow up and monitoring. THE DISEASES – COPD. Pathophysiology of respiratory failure. NIV in acute exacerbations of COPD. NIV in chronic COPD. NIV in chronic COPD after AECOPD. NIV in COPD - the importance of comorbidities. Modes of ventilation in COPD. THE DISEASES - HYPOXEAMIC RESPIRATORY FAILURE. Pathophysiology of Hypoxeamic Respiratory Failure. Oxygen in chronic respiratory failure. Emergency oxygen therapy. High flow oxygen. Equipment for oxygen therapy. NIV for Hypoxeamic Respiratory Failure. THE DISEASES - CARDIAC FAILURE. Pathophysiology and modern management of cardiac failure. Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Ventilation in chronic congestive cardiac failure. THE DISEASES – NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASE. Neuromuscular disease and ventilatory failure - a diagnostic approach. Pathophysiology of respiratory failure in NMD. Slowly progressive NMD. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Central sleep apnoea. Mouth piece ventilation. THE DISEASES – CHEST WALL DEFORMITY. Early onset scoliosis. THE DISEASES – OBESITY. Pathophysiology of respiratory failure in obesity. Non invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure due to obesity. Non invasive ventilation chronic respiratory failure due to obesity. THE DISEASES – OTHER CONDITIONS. Bronchiectasis and adult cystic fibrosis. Highly infectious conditions: SARS, AIDS, TB. Cancer patients. The elderly. Post surgery. Trauma. Spinal injuries. PAEDEATRIC VENTILATORY FAILURE. Equipment and Interfaces for children. Chronic NIV for children. Acute NIV for children. SPECIAL SITUATIONS. Bronchoscopy. Pregnancy. Diaphragm pacing and plication. Tracheostomy. Swallowing and phonation during ventilation. End of life care with nurse, patient perspectives. Withdrawal of assisted ventilation. PROLONGED WEANING. The epidemiology and cost of weaning failure. Pathophysiology of weaning failure. NIV for weaning and extubation failure. Weaning strategies and protocols. Specialised weaning units. Psychological problems in weaning. THE PHYSIOTHERAPIST AND ASSISTED VENTILATION. Physiotherapy to include cough assist devices, glossopharyngeal breathing. Rehabilitation. OUTCOME MEASURES. Health status and quality of life. THE PATIENT EXPERIENCE OF NIV. How to involve patients in services (and research). Psychological issues for the mechanically ventilated patient. Practical issues facing ventilator users: the patient perspective. A patient's journey – NIV. A caregiver's journey.
Now in full-colour, this eagerly-anticipated second edition continues to be the most comprehensive resource available on non-invasive ventilation (NIV), both in the hospital and at home. Reflecting a global perspective with expert contributors from more than 15 countries, the book:
- Provides clinical examples of NIV in practice with insightful vignettes
- Covers home- and intensive care-based ventilation
- Details acute and chronic applications, paediatric use, and weaning issues
- Reflects a global perspective - edited by three highly respected specialists and contributors from more than 15 countries
Disease-specific sections provide best practice in the science, diagnostics and management of conditions such as COPD, cardiac failure, neuromuscular disease and obesity, while features such as ‘Common Clinical Questions & Answers’, abundant tables and illustrations, chapter summaries and new clinical vignettes showcase the realities of NIV in practice. This is essential reading for pulmonologists, critical care physicians and intensive care medicine specialists.
Mark Elliott MD FRCP (UK) is a Consultant Respiratory Physician, Department of Respiratory Medicine, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK. He has been responsible for developing the home sleep and assisted ventilation service, for acute in hospital NIV and weaning of patients with prolonged ventilator dependence. His research interests are in acute and chronic noninvasive ventilation and sleep related abnormalities of breathing.
Stefano Nava MD is Professor of Medicine and Chief of the Respiratory and Critical Care Unit, presso S. Orsola Malpghi Hospital in Bologna, Italy; it is one of Italy’s largest hospitals. Dr. Nava has served both the ATS in its Critical Care Assembly as well as the European Respiratory Society in several capacities. He also sits on a joint task force between the ATS and ERS on noninvasive ventilation which aims to keep literature on the subject up to date. Dr. Nava has written more than 100 papers on the noninvasive ventilation. Born in Crema, Italy, Dr. Nava earned his degree in medicine at Pavia University, where he subsequently specialized in pulmonary disease, intensive care medicine, and anesthesiology. Between 1985 and 1988, he took a research fellowship in pulmonary medicine at Royal Victoria Hospital and the Meakins-Christie Laboratories, at McGill University in Canada. It was there, under the tutelage of the venerable professors Joseph Milic-Emili, Francois Bellemare, and the late Peter T. Macklem, that Dr. Nava studied respiratory mechanics and physiology—mainly in invasively ventilated patients.
Bernd Schönhofer MD, PhD, is Director, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Klinikum Region Hannover, Oststadt - Heidehaus, Hannover, Germany