# Introduction to Nonimaging Optics

## Chaves Julio

### ISBN-13: 9781482206739

### CRC PRESS

Agosto / 2015

2ª Edición

Inglés

786 pags

1400 gr

x x cm

Recíbelo en un plazo De 2 a 3 semanas

### Description

**Introduction to Nonimaging Optics** covers the theoretical foundations and design methods of nonimaging optics, as well as key concepts from related fields. This fully updated, revised, and expanded **Second Edition**:

- Features a new and intuitive introduction with a basic description of the advantages of nonimaging optics
- Adds new chapters on wavefronts for a prescribed output (irradiance or intensity), infinitesimal étendue optics (generalization of the aplanatic optics), and Köhler optics and color mixing
- Incorporates new material on the simultaneous multiple surface (SMS) design method in 3-D, integral invariants, and étendue 2-D
- Contains 21 chapters, 24 fully worked and several other examples, and 1,000+ illustrations, including photos of real devices
- Addresses applications ranging from solar energy concentration to illumination engineering

**Introduction to Nonimaging Optics, Second Edition** invites newcomers to explore the growing field of nonimaging optics, while providing seasoned veterans with an extensive reference book.

**Features**

- Covers the theoretical foundations and design methods of nonimaging optics, as well as key concepts from related fields
- Includes four new chapters and new material on the simultaneous multiple surface (SMS) design method in 3-D, Köhler optics, and étendue 2-D
- Invites newcomers to explore the growing field of nonimaging optics, while providing seasoned veterans with an extensive reference book

### Contents

**NONIMAGING OPTICS**Why Use Nonimaging Optics

Area and Angle

Collimators: Illumination of a Large Receiver

Concentrators: Illumination of a Small Receiver

Collimators and Concentrators Summary

Collimators Tolerances

Concentrators Tolerances

Nonuniform Sources

Solar Concentrators

Light Flux

Wavefronts and the SMS

References

**Fundamental Concepts**

Introduction

Imaging and Nonimaging Optics

The Compound Parabolic Concentrator

Maximum Concentration

Examples

References

**Design of Two-Dimensional Concentrators**

Introduction

**Concentrators for Sources at a Finite Distance**

**Concentrators for Tubular Receivers**

**Angle Transformers**

**The String Method**

**Optics with Dielectrics**

**Asymmetrical Optics**

**Examples**

**References**

**Étendue and the Winston–Welford Design Method**

Introduction

**Conservation of Étendue**

**Nonideal Optical Systems**

**Étendue as a Geometrical Quantity**

**Two-Dimensional Systems**

**Étendue as an Integral of the Optical Momentum**

**Étendue as a Volume in Phase Space**

**Étendue as a Difference in Optical Path Length**

**Flow-Lines**

**The Winston–Welford Design Method**

**Caustics as Flow-Lines**

**Maximum Concentration**

**Étendue and the Shape Factor**

**Examples**

**References**

**Vector Flux**

Introduction

**Definition of Vector Flux**

**Vector Flux as a Bisector of the Edge Rays**

**Vector Flux and Étendue**

**Vector Flux for Disk-Shaped Lambertian Sources**

**Design of Concentrators Using the Vector Flux**

**Examples**

**References**

**Combination of Primaries with Flow-Line Secondaries**

Introduction

Reshaping the Receiver

Compound Elliptical Concentrator Secondary

Truncated Trumpet Secondary

Trumpet Secondary for a Large Receiver

Secondaries with Multiple Entry Apertures

Tailored Edge Ray Concentrators Designed for Maximum Concentration

Tailored Edge Ray Concentrators Designed for Lower Concentration

Fresnel Primaries

Tailored Edge Ray Concentrators for Fresnel Primaries

Examples

References

**Stepped Flow-Line Nonimaging Optics**

Introduction

**Compact Concentrators**

**Concentrators with Gaps**

**Examples**

**References**

**Luminaires**

Introduction

**Luminaires for Large Source and Flat Mirrors**

**The General Approach for Flat Sources**

**Far-Edge Diverging Luminaires for Flat Sources**

**Far-Edge Converging Luminaires for Flat Sources**

**Near-Edge Diverging Luminaires for Flat Sources**

**Near-Edge Converging Luminaires for Flat Sources**

**Luminaires for Circular Sources**

**Examples**

**Appendix A: Mirror Differential Equation for Linear Sources**

**Appendix B: Mirror Differential Equation for Circular Sources**

**References**

**Miñano–Benitez Design Method (Simultaneous Multiple Surface)**

Introduction

The RR Optic

SMS with a Thin Edge

The XR, RX, and XX Optics

The Miñano–Benitez Design Method with Generalized Wavefronts

The RXI Optic: Iterative Calculation

The RXI Optic: Direct Calculation

SMS Optical Path Length Adjustment

SMS 3-D

Asymmetric SMS 3-D

SMS 3-D with a Thin Edge

Other Types of Simultaneous Multiple Surface Optics

Examples

References

**Wavefronts for Prescribed Output**

Introduction

**Wavefronts for Prescribed Intensity**

**Wavefronts for Prescribed Irradiance**

**Bundle Coupling and Prescribed Irradiance**

**References**

**Infinitesimal Étendue Optics**

Introduction

**Infinitesimal Étendue Optics**

**Continuous Optical Surfaces**

**Fresnel Optics**

**Finite Distance Source**

**Examples**

**References**

**Köhler Optics and Color-Mixing**

Introduction

**Köhler Optics**

**Solar Energy Concentration Based on Köhler Optics**

**Prescribed Irradiance Köhler Optics**

**Color-Mixing Based on Köhler Optics**

**SMS-Based Köhler Optics**

**Color-Mixing with Grooved Reflectors**

**Examples**

**References**

**The Miñano Design Method Using Poisson Brackets**

Introduction

**Design of Two-Dimensional Concentrators for Inhomogeneous Media**

**Edge Rays as a Tubular Surface in Phase Space**

**Poisson Brackets**

**Curvilinear Coordinate System**

**Design of Two-Dimensional Concentrators**

**An Example of an Ideal Two-Dimensional Concentrator**

**Design of Three-Dimensional Concentrators**

**An Example of an Ideal Three-Dimensional Concentrator**

**References**

**GEOMETRICAL OPTICS**

**Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Geometrical Optics**

Fermat’s Principle

**Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formulations**

**Optical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian**

**Another Form for the Hamiltonian Formulation**

**Change of Coordinate System in the Hamilton Equations**

**Integral Invariants**

**Movements of the System as Canonical Transformations**

**References**

**Rays and Wavefronts**

Optical Momentum

**The Eikonal Equation**

**The Ray Equation**

**Optical Path Length between Two Wavefronts**

**References**

**Reflection and Refraction**

Reflected and Refracted Rays

**The Laws of Reflection and Refraction**

**References**

**Symmetry**

Conservation of Momentum and Apparent Refractive Index

**Linear Symmetry**

**Circular Symmetry and Skew Invariant**

**References**

**Étendue in Phase Space**

Étendue and the Point Characteristic Function

**Étendue in Hamiltonian Optics**

**Integral Invariants and Étendue**

**Refraction, Reflection, and Étendue 2-D**

**Étendue 2-D Examples**

**References**

**Classical Mechanics and Geometrical Optics**

Fermat’s Principle and Maupertuis’ Principle

**Skew Invariant and Conservation of Angular Momentum**

**Potential in Mechanics and Refractive Index in Optics**

**References**

**Radiometry, Photometry, and Radiation Heat Transfer**

Definitions

**Conservation of Radiance in Homogeneous Media**

**Conservation of Basic Radiance in (Specular) Reflections and Refractions**

**Étendue and the Shape Factor**

**Two-Dimensional Systems**

**Illumination of a Plane**

**References**

**Plane Curves**

General Considerations

**Parabola**

**Ellipse**

**Hyperbola**

**Conics**

**Involute**

**Winding Macrofocal Parabola**

**Unwinding Macrofocal Parabola**

**Winding Macrofocal Ellipse**

**Unwinding Macrofocal Ellipse**

**Cartesian Oval for Parallel Rays**

**Cartesian Oval for Converging or Diverging Rays**

**Cartesian Ovals Calculated Point by Point**

**Equiangular Spiral**

**Functions Definitions**

**References**

### Author

**Julio Chaves** completed his undergraduate studies in physics engineering at the Higher Technical Institute, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal in 1995. He received his Ph.D in physics from the same institute. Dr. Chaves did postgraduate work at the Solar Energy Institute, Technical University of Madrid, Spain in 2002, and in 2003, he joined Light Prescriptions Innovators (LPI), LLC, Altadena, California, USA. In 2006, he moved back to Madrid, Spain, and has been working with LPI since. Dr. Chaves developed the new concepts of stepped flow-line optics and ideal light confinement by caustics (caustics as flow lines). He is the co-inventor of several patents and the coauthor of many papers in the field of nonimaging optics. He also participated in the early development of the simultaneous multiple surface design method in three-dimensional geometry.

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