This issue of Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America brings the clinician up to date on essential topics in rhinitis, including the following. The primary clinical symptoms and their causes are defined. The wide range of current treatments are discussed, including the use of antihistamines, nasal corticosteroids, anticholinergics, decongestants, cromolyn, guafenesin, saline washes, capsaicin, and leukotriene antagonists. The efficacy of allergy avoidance is discussed. The future treatment of rhinitis is also explored. The current understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis is covered. The definition, clinical characteristics, and diagnosis of nonallergic rhinopathy are also covered. Causes of rhinitis are presented, including causes of mixed, gustatory, viral, hormonal, pregnancy-related rhinitis medicamentosa; and senile rhinitis. A discussion and comparison of subcutaneous versus sublingual immunotherapy is also explored.
By Michael A. Kaliner, MD, Institute For Asthma & Allergy