High-Yield™ Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Public Health, Fourth Edition provides a concise review of the biostatistics concepts that are tested in the USMLE Step 1. Information is presented in an easy-to-follow format, with High-Yield Points that help students focus on the most important USMLE Step 1 facts. The High-Yield™ outline format, with tables, diagrams, photographs, and images to clarify important material, provides a concentrated, efficient review for both course exams and the USMLE.
- New chapter covers epidemiology and public health in greater detail
- Memorable examples aid in understanding difficult concepts
- Outline format provides a concentrated, efficient method of studying for both course exams and the USMLE
- Diagrams, photographs and images are included to clarify technical material
Table of Contents
Statistical Symbols ...... Preface 1.... Descriptive Statistics Populations, samples, and elements Probability Types of data Frequency distributions Measures of central tendency Measures of variability Z scores Exercises 2.... Inferential Statistics Statistics and parameters Estimating the mean of a population Exercises 3.... Hypothesis Testing Step 1: State the null and alternative hypotheses Step 2: Select the decision criterion a Step 3: Establish the critical values Step 4: Draw a random sample from the population and calculate the mean of that sample Step 5: Calculate the standard deviation (S) and estimated standard error of the sample (sX_) Step 6: Calculate the value of t that corresponds to the mean of the sample (tcalc) Step 7: Compare the calculated value of t with the critical values of t, and then accept or reject the null hypothesis Z-tests The meaning of statistical significance Type I and type II errors Power of statistical tests Directional hypotheses Testing for differences between groups Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Nonparametric and distribution-free tests Exercises 4.... Correlational Techniques Correlation Regression Choosing an appropriate inferential or correlational technique Exercises 5.... Research Methods Experimental studies Nonexperimental studies Exercises 6.... Statistics in Epidemiology Rates Measurement of risk Exercises 7.... Statistics in Medical Decision Making Validity Reliability Reference values Sensitivity and specificity Predictive values Exercises 8.... Ultra-High-Yield Review ...... Appendix: Exercise Answers ...... References ...... Index