This handbook provides guidance to organizational and social science scholars interested in pursuing multilevel research. Organizational relationships are complex. Employees do their work as individuals, but also as members of larger teams. They exist within various social networks, both within and spanning organizations. Multilevel theory is at the core of the organizational sciences, and unpacking multilevel relationships is fundamental to the challenges faced within these disciplines. Yet, guidance about how to pursue multilevel research has often been siloed within subdomains. In this book, prominent experts on multilevel research guide scholars in the social and behavioral sciences who wish to consider the implications that multilevel research may have for their work. Although the majority of contributors to this handbook have backgrounds in the organizational sciences, the chapters are accessible to researchers from a wide array disciplines including, but not limited to, communication, education, sociology, psychology, and management.
Stephen E. Humphrey, PhD, is a professor of management and the Smeal College Executive Programs Fellow in the Smeal College of Business at Pennsylvania State University. His research focuses on social relations at work, with a primary focus on teamwork, the drivers of team success, and the development of relationships within teams. Much of his work unpacks the microdynamics of teams, approaching research questions using a multilevel, multiperiod, multitheoretical lens. Dr. Humphrey's research has been published in various management and psychology outlets, including Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Personality, Personnel Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. He also has authored numerous book chapters. Finally, Dr. Humphrey previously served as the associate editor at Organizational Psychology Review and currently serves on the editorial boards of Academy of Management Journal and Journal of Applied Psychology.
James M. LeBreton, PhD, is a professor of psychology at Pennsylvania State University. His research focuses on the theory and measurement of implicit motives (e.g., motive to aggress, motive to achieve) and understanding how implicit motives are related to a range of work-related behaviors (e.g., counterproductive work behavior, leadership, team performance). Dr. LeBreton's methodological work focuses on topics such as assessing interrater agreement and reliability, analyzing longitudinal and multilevel data, and assessing the relative importance of predictors in regression models. In addition to authoring a book on implicit personality and several book chapters, Dr. LeBreton has published articles in outlets such as Current Directions in Psychological Science, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, Personnel Psychology, Perspectives on Psychological Science, Psychological Methods, and Psychological Science. In 2009, he was awarded the Early Career Award from the Academy of Management's Research Methods Division and the Center for the Advancement of Research Methods and Analysis. In 2013, he was elected Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Dr. LeBreton has served on the Executive Committee for the Research Methods Division of the Academy of Management and the Scientific Affairs Committee for the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. He currently serves on the editorial boards of Human Performance, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Journal of Management. From 2014 to 2017, Dr. LeBreton served as the editor-in-chief for Organizational Research Methods. In addition, he is a regular instructor and presenter for the Consortium for the Advancement of Research Methods and Analysis.