# Measurement and Detection of Radiation

## Tsoulfanidis, N. — Landsberger, S.

3ª Edición Diciembre 2010

Inglés

Tapa dura

518 pags

1300 gr

18 x 25 x 3 cm

### ISBN 9781420091854

### Editorial CRC PRESS

Recíbelo en un plazo De 2 a 3 semanas

**DESCRIPTION **

The research and applications of nuclear instrumentation have grown substantially since publication of the previous editions. With the miniaturization of equipment, increased speed of electronic components, and more sophisticated software, radiation detection systems are now more productively used in many disciplines, including nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. Continuing in the tradition of its bestselling predecessors, Measurement and Detection of Radiation, Third Edition illustrates the fundamentals of nuclear interactions and radiation detection with a multitude of examples and problems. It offers a clearly written, accessible introduction to nuclear instrumentation concepts.

New to the Third Edition

- A new chapter on the latest applications of radiation detection, covering nuclear medicine, dosimetry, health physics, nonproliferation, and homeland security
- Updates to all chapters and subtopics within chapters, as needed
- Many new references and a completely updated bibliography

This third edition of a classic textbook continues to serve new students entering the nuclear science and engineering fields. It enables them to select the proper detector, analyze the results of counting experiments, and perform radiation measurements that follow proper health physics procedures. A solutions manual is available with qualifying course adoption.

Features

- Provides a fundamental understanding of radiation detection and measurement techniques
- Explores many current applications of radiation detection technology and nuclear instrumentation, from nuclear nonproliferation to nuclear medicine
- Covers data analysis for counting experiments
- Includes end-of-chapter problems as well as numerous examples throughout

Solutions manual available upon qualifying course adoptions.

**TABLE OF CONTENTS**

Introduction to Radiation Measurements

What Is Meant by Radiation?

Statistical Nature of Radiation Emission

The Errors and Accuracy and Precision of Measurements

Types of Errors

Nuclear Instrumentation

Statistical Errors of Radiation Counting

Introduction

Definition of Probability

Basic Probability Theorems

Probability Distributions and Random Variables

Location Indexes (Mode, Median, Mean)

Dispersion Indexes, Variance, and Standard Deviation

Covariance and Correlation

The Binomial Distribution

The Poisson Distribution

The Normal (Gaussian) Distribution

The Lorentzian Distribution

The Standard, Probable, and Other Errors

The Arithmetic Mean and Its Standard Error

Confidence Limits

Propagation of Errors

Goodness of Data—x2 Criterion—Rejection of Data

The Statistical Error of Radiation Measurements

The Standard Error of Counting Rates

Methods of Error Reduction

Minimum Detectable Activity

Counter Dead-Time Correction and Measurement of Dead Time

Review of Atomic and Nuclear Physics

Introduction

Elements of Relativistic Kinematics

Atoms

Nuclei

Nuclear Binding Energy

Nuclear Energy Levels

Energetics of Nuclear Decays

The Radioactive Decay Law

Nuclear Reactions

Fission

Energy Loss and Penetration of Radiation through Matter

Introduction

Mechanisms of Charged-Particle Energy Loss

Stopping Power Due to Ionization and Excitation

Energy Loss Due to Bremsstrahlung Emission

Calculation of dE/dx for a Compound or Mixture

Range of Charged Particles

Stopping Power and Range of Heavy Ions (Z > 2, A > 4)

Interactions of Photons with Matter

Interactions of Neutrons with Matter

Gas-Filled Detectors

Introduction

Relationship between High Voltage and Charge Collected

Different Types of Gas-Filled Detectors

Ionization Chambers

Proportional Counters

Geiger–Müller Counters

Gas-Flow Counters

Rate Meters

General Comments about Construction of Gas-Filled Detectors

Scintillation Detectors

Introduction

Inorganic (Crystal) Scintillators

Organic Scintillators

Gaseous Scintillators

The Relationship between Pulse Height and Energy and Type of Incident Particle

The Photomultiplier Tube

Assembly of a Scintillation Counter and the Role of Light Pipes

Dead Time of Scintillation Counters

Sources of Background in a Scintillation Counter

The Phoswich Detector

Semiconductor Detectors

Introduction

Electrical Classification of Solids

Semiconductors

The p-n Junction

The Different Types of Semiconductor Detectors

Radiation Damage to Semiconductor Detectors

Relative and Absolute Measurements

Introduction

Geometry Effects

Source Effects

Detector Effects

Relationship between Counting Rate and Source Strength

Introduction to Spectroscopy

Introduction

Definition of Energy Spectra

Measurement of an Integral Spectrum with a Single-Channel Analyzer (SCA)

Measurement of a Differential Spectrum with an SCA

The Relationship between Pulse-Height Distribution and Energy Spectrum

Energy Resolution of a Detection System

Determination of the Energy Resolution—The Response Function

The Importance of Good Energy Resolution

Brief Description of a Multichannel Analyzer (MCA)

Calibration of an MCA

Electronics

Introduction

Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance, and Impedance

A Differentiating Circuit

An Integrating Circuit

Delay Lines

Pulse Shaping

Timing

Coincidence-Anticoincidence Measurements

Pulse-Shape Discrimination

Preamplifiers

Amplifiers

Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC)

Multiparameter Analyzers

Data Analysis Methods

Introduction

Curve Fitting

Interpolation Schemes

Least-Squares Fitting

Folding and Unfolding

Data Smoothing

Photon (Gamma-Ray and X-Ray) Spectroscopy

Introduction

Modes of Energy Deposition in the Detector

Efficiency of X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detectors: Definitions

Detection of Photons with NaI(Tl) Scintillation Counters

Detection of Gammas with Ge Detectors

CdTe and HgI2 Detectors as Gamma Spectrometers

Detection of X-Rays with a Si(Li) Detector

Charged-Particle Spectroscopy

Introduction

Energy Straggling

Electron Spectroscopy

Alpha, Proton, Deuteron, and Triton Spectroscopy

Heavy-Ion (Z > 2) Spectroscopy

The Time-of-Flight Spectrometer

Detector Telescopes (E dE/dx Detectors)

Position-Sensitive Detectors

Neutron Detection and Spectroscopy

Introduction

Neutron Detection by (n, Charged Particle) Reaction

Fission Chambers

Neutron Detection by Foil Activation

Measurement of a Neutron Energy Spectrum by Proton Recoil

Detection of Fast Neutrons Using Threshold Activation Reactions

Neutron Energy Measurement with a Crystal Spectrometer

The Time-of-Flight Method

Compensated Ion Chambers

Self-Powered Neutron Detectors (SPND)

Concluding Remarks

Activation Analysis

Introduction

Selection of the Optimum Nuclear Reaction

Preparation of the Sample for Irradiation

Sources of Radiation

Irradiation of the Sample

Counting of the Sample

Analysis of the Results

Sensitivity of Activation Analysis

Interference Reactions

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Activation Analysis Method

Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

Neutron Depth Profile

Neutron Radiography

Health Physics Fundamentals

Introduction

Units of Exposure and Absorbed Dose

The Relative Biological Effectiveness—The Dose Equivalent

Dosimetry for Radiation External to the Body

Dosimetry for Radiation Inside the Body

Internal Dose Time Dependence—Biological Half-Life

Biological Effects of Radiation

Radiation Protection Guides and Exposure Limits

Health Physics Instruments

Proper Use of Radiation

Applications of Radiation Detection

Introduction

Health Physics within Nuclear Power Plants and Radiological Facilities

Portal Monitors and Passive Detection

Interactive Radiation Detection Systems

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Radiation Detection

Coincidence and Anti-Coincidence Detection Systems

Nuclear Medicine

Detection of Nuclear Materials/Nonproliferation Issues

Appendix A: Useful Constants and Conversion Factors

Appendix B: Atomic Masses and Other Properties of Isotopes

Appendix C: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Sources Commonly Used

Appendix D: Tables of Photon Attenuation Coefficients

Appendix E: Table of Buildup Factor Constants

Index

Problems, Bibliography, and References appear at the end of each chapter.

**Editorial Reviews **

This book is an excellent review of nuclear detection systems. The updated
text is particularly timely with regard to the current zeitgeist for homeland
security, nuclear non-proliferation, and nuclear security.

—Professor Steven Biegalski, University of Texas at Austin, USA

**AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY**

Nicholas Tsoulfanidis is an adjunct professor at the University of Nevada in Reno and professor emeritus at the Missouri University of Science and Technology. Since June 1997, he has been the editor of Nuclear Technology, an international journal published by the American Nuclear Society.

Sheldon Landsberger is the coordinator of the Nuclear and Radiation Engineering Program and a Hayden Head Centennial Endowed Professor at the University of Texas in Austin. He has been a recipient of the Arthur Holly Compton Award from the American Nuclear Society.

Both Dr. Tsoulfanidis and Dr. Landsberger have been recipients of the Glenn Murphy Award from the American Society for Engineering Education.

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