The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine is a comprehensive guide to topics in the fields of epistemology and metaphysics of medicine. It examines traditional topics such as the concept of disease, causality in medicine, the epistemology of the randomized controlled trial, the biopsychosocial model, explanation, clinical judgment and phenomenology of medicine and emerging topics, such as philosophy of epidemiology, measuring harms, the concept of disability, nursing perspectives, race and gender, the metaphysics of Chinese medicine, and narrative medicine. Each of the 48 chapters is written especially for this volume and with a student audience in mind. For pedagogy and clarity, each chapter contains an extended example illustrating the ideas discussed. This text is intended for use as a reference for students in courses in philosophy of medicine and philosophy of science, and pairs well with The Routledge Companion to Bioethics for use in medical humanities and social science courses.
PART I: GENERAL CONCEPTS * The concept of disease (Dominic Sisti and Arthur Caplan) * Disease, illness, and sickness (Bjorn Hofmann) * Health and wellbeing (Daniel Hausman) * Disability and normality (Anita Silvers) * Mechanisms in medicine (Phyllis Illari) * Causality and causal inference in medicine (Julian Reiss) * Frequency and propensity: The interpretation of probability in causal models for medicine (Donald Gillies) * Reductionism in the biomedical sciences (Holly Andersen) * Realism and constructivism in medicine (Jeremy R. Simon) PART II: SPECIFIC CONCEPTS * Birth (Christina Schuees) * Death (Steven Luper) * Pain and suffering (Valerie Gray Hardcastle) * Measuring placebo effects (Jeremy Howick) * The concept of genetic disease (Jonathan M. Kaplan) * Diagnostic categories (Annemarie Jutel) * Classificatory challenges in psychopathology (Harold Kincaid) * Classificatory challenges in physical disease (Mathias Brochhausen) PART III: RESEARCH MEDICINE (a) Evidence in Medicine 18. The randomized controlled trial: internal and external validity (Adam La Caze) 19. The hierarchy of evidence, meta-analysis, and systematic review (Robyn Bluhm) 20. Statistical evidence and the reliability of medical research (Mattia Andreoletti & David Teira) 21. Bayesian versus Frequentist clinical trials (Cecilia Nardini) 22. Observational research (Olaf Dekkers & Jan Vandenbroucke) 23. Philosophy of epidemiology (Alex Broadbent) 24. Complementary/alternative medicine and the evidence requirement (Kirsten Hansen & Klemmens Kappel) b. Other Research Methods 25. Models in medicine (Michael Wilde & Jon Williamson) 26. Discovery in medicine (Brendan Clarke) 27. Explanation in medicine (Mael Lemoine) 28. The case study in medicine (Rachel Ankeny) 29. Values in medical research (Kirstin Borgersen) 30. Outcome measures in medicine (Leah McClimans) 31. Measuring harms (Jacob Stegenga) 32. Expert consensus (Miriam Solomon) PART IV: CLINICAL METHODS 33. Clinical judgment (Ross Upshur & Benjamin Chin-Yee) 34. Narrative medicine (Danielle Spencer) 35. Medical decision making: diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis (Ashley Graham Kennedy) PART V: VARIABILITY AND DIVERSITY 36. Personalized and Precision Medicine (Alex Gamma) 37. Gender in Medicine (Inmaculada de Melo Martin & Kristin Intemann) 38. Race in Medicine (Sean Valles) 39. Atypical bodies in medical care (Ellen Feder) PART VI: PERSPECTIVES 40. The biomedical model and the biopsychosocial model (Fred Gifford) 41. Models of mental illness (Jacqueline Sullivan) 42. Phenomenology and hermeneutics in Medicine (Havi Carel) 43. Evolutionary Medicine (Michael Cournoyea) 44. Philosophy of Nursing: caring, holism and the nursing role(s) (Mark Risjord) 45. Contemporary Chinese medicine and its theoretical foundations (Judith Farquhar) 46. Double truths and the postcolonial predicament of Chinese medicine (Eric Karchmer) 47. Medicine as a commodity (Carl Elliott)