State-of-the-art review articles by leading experts summarize how to develop and employ the highly promising new DNA vaccines, what clinical results can be expected from their use, and what is known about how they work. Key topics range from vaccine design and construction to preparation and delivery methods, including the use of classical adjuvants, "genetic adjuvants," and the immunostimulatory properties of DNA and selected oligonucleotide sequences. Several contributors provide strategic ideas on antigen engineering and describe the novel applications of DNA vaccine methodology that have recently emerged. Cutting-edge and comprehensive, DNA Vaccines: Methods and Protocols provides a snapshot of the methods and thinking from which the vaccines of tomorrow will evolve.
Table of Contents
Purification of Supercoiled Plasmid, Anthony P. Green. Production of Plasmid DNA in Industrial Quantities According to cGMP Guidelines, Joachim Schorr, Peter Moritz, and Martin Schleef. Development and Characterization of Lyophilized DNA Vaccine Formulations, Nancy L. Shen, Jukka Hartikka, Nancy A. Horn, Marston Manthorpe, and Magda Marquet. Repeated Use of Qiagen Columns in Large-Scale Preparation of Plasmid DNA, Derek Gregory, Ricardo E. Tascon, and Douglas B. Lowrie. The Immunology of DNA Vaccines, Thomas Tüting, Jonathan Austyn, Walter J. Storkus, and Louis D. Falo Jr. Methodology Used in DNA-Based Prophylactic and Therapeutic Immunization Against Hepatitis B Virus in Chimpanzees, Alfred M. Prince and Betsy Brotman. Intramuscular and Intradermal Injection of DNA Vaccines in Mice and Primates, Heather L. Davis. Veterinary DNA Vaccines, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Ralph P. Braun, and Lorne A. Babiuk. DNA-Based Immunization of Neonatal Mice, Cynthia L. Brazolot Millan and Heather L. Davis. Intramuscular Injection of DNA Vaccines in Fish, Joël Heppell and Heather L. Davis. Development of DNA Vaccines for Salmonid Fish, Eric D. Anderson and Jo-Ann C. Leong. CTL Analysis for Tumor Vaccines, Antonio Rosato, Gabriella Milan, Annalisa Zambon, Paola Zanovello, and Dino Collavo. The Use of Bone Marrow-Chimeric Mice in Determining the MHC Restriction of Epitope-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes, Akiko Iwasaki and Brian H. Barber. Immunostimulatory DNA Sequences: An Overview, John H. Van Uden and Eyal Raz. Immunostimulatory CpG Motifs and DNA Vaccines, Risini Weeratna, Arthur M. Krieg, and Heather L. Davis. In Vitro Assay of Immunostimulatory Activities of Plasmid Vectors, Charles F. Reich and David S. Pisetsky. Adjuvants for Plasmid DNA Vaccines, Jon Norman, Jukka Hartikka, Pamela Strauch, and Marston Manthorpe. Cytokine and Costimulatory Factor-Encoding Plasmids as Adjuvants for DNA Vaccination, Kenji Okuda, Susumu Kawamoto, and Jun Fukushima. Optimization of DNA Vaccines Through the Use of Molecular Adjuvants, Jong J. Kim and David B. Weiner. Cytokine Fusion Constructs as DNA Vaccines Against Tumors, Holden T. Maecker, Athanasia Syrengelas, and Ronald Levy. The Use of Conventional Immunologic Adjuvants in DNA Vaccine Preparations, Shin Sasaki and Kenji Okuda. Genetic Adjuvants, Hildegund C. J. Ertl, Susanna Pasquini, Zhenning He, Hongying Deng, Louise Showe, Wynetta Giles-Davis, Yijie Wang, InSug O, Hilary Marston, Magdalena Blaszczyk- Thurin, and Zhiquan Xiang. DNA Immunization in Combination with the Immunostimulant Monophosphoryl Lipid A, Donald L. Lodmell, Nancy B. Ray, and Larry C. Ewalt. Controlled Plasmid Delivery and Gene Expression: Applications for Nucleic Acid-Based Vaccines, Russell J. Mumper, Harry C. Ledebur, Jr., Alain P. Rolland, and Eric Tomlinson. Mucosal Immunization with DNA Vaccines, Michael J. McCluskie and Heather L. Davis. Preparations for Particle-Mediated Gene Transfer Using the Accell® Gene Gun, Michael D. Macklin, Robert J. Drape, and William F. Swain. Entrapment of Plasmid DNA Vaccines into Liposomes by Dehydration/Rehydration, Gregory Gregoriadis, Brenda McCormack, Mia Obrenovich, and Yvonne Perrie. DNA-Based Vaccination with Polycistronic Expression Plasmids, Reinhold Schirmbeck, Jan von Kampen, Karin Metzger, Jens Wild, Beate Grüner, Martin Schleef, Andrea Kröger, Hansjörg Hauser, and Jörg Reimann. A Nonviral Cytoplasmic T7 Autogene System and Its Applications in DNA Vaccination, Franck G. Sturtz, Yunsheng Li, Janine Shulok, H. Ralph Snodgrass, and Xiao-zhuo Chen. Immunization with Naked DNA Coexpressing Antigen and Cytokine via IRES, Jochen Heinrich, Bettina Strack, Michael Nawrath, Jovan Pavlovic, and Karin Moelling. Genetic Subunit Vaccines: A Novel Approach for Genetic Immunization, I. Frank Ciernik and David P. Carbone. Antigen Engineering in DNA Immunization, Shan Lu, Steve Manning, and James Arthos. Genetic Vaccination Targeting T-Cell Receptors, Alexis P. Godillot, Qiong Fang, Terry Higgins, Catherine J. Pachuk, Jean Boyer, David B. Weiner, Stuart Lessin, and William V. Williams. Immunity to T-Cell Receptor: Suppressive Vaccination with DNA Encoding a Variable Region Gene of the T-Cell Receptor, Ari Waisman. DNA Fusion Vaccines Against B-Cell Tumors, Delin Zhu, Myfanwy B. Spellerberg, Catherine A. King, Jason Rice, Andrew R. Thompsett, and Freda K. Stevenson. DNA-Based Vaccination Primes Tumor-Rejecting T-Cell Responses, Waltraud Böhm, Martin Schleef, Stefan Thoma, Reinhold Schirmbeck, and Jörg Reimann. Development of a Female Contraceptive Vaccine Through DNA Inoculation of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Beta Subunit (hCGb), Fu-chun Zhang, Ni Wang, Dong-mei Liu, Youli Jian, You-zhen Chen, Xiao-zhou Shen, Yong-qing Cao, and Bin Wang. Genetic Immunization for Allergy Immunotherapy, Mark Roman, Helen Tighe, Hans L. Spiegelberg, David Broide, and Eyal Raz. Preclinical Safety of DNA Vaccines: A Method to Analyze the Distribution of Plasmid DNA in Animal Models, Richard B. Ciccarelli, Catherine J. Pachuk, Manoj Samuel, Laurie A. Winter, and C. Satischandran. DNA Vaccination: Tolerance and Autoimmunity, Gil Mor and Mariel Eliza. Assuring the Quality, Safety, and Efficacy of DNA Vaccines, James S. Robertson and Elwyn Griffiths. Index.