Consciousness has long been a subject of interest in philosophy and religion but only relatively recently has it become subject to scientific investigation. Now, more than ever before, we are beginning to understand this mental state. Developmental psychologists understand when we first develop a sense of self; neuropsychologists see which parts of the brain activate when we think about ourselves and which parts of the brain control that awareness. Cognitive scientists have mapped the circuitry that allows machines to have some form of self awareness, and neuroscientists investigate similar circuitry in the human brain.
Research that once was separate inquiries in discreet disciplines is converging. List serves and small conferences focused on consciousness are proliferating. New journals have emerged in this field. A huge number of monographs and edited treatises have recently been published on consciousness, but there is no recognized entry point to the field, no comprehensive summary. This encyclopedia is that reference.
Organized alphabetically by topic, coverage encompasses a summary of major research and scientific thought regarding the nature of consciousness, the neural circuitry involved, how the brain, body, and world interact, and our understanding of subjective states. The work includes contributions covering neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, and artificial intelligence to provide a comprehensive backdrop to recent and ongoing investigations into the nature of conscious experience from a philosophical, psychological, and biological perspective.
Table of Contents
Aesthetics and the Experience of Beauty Altered and Higher States of Consciousness Animal Consciousness Artificial Intelligence and Consciousness Attention, Awareness, and Neglect Attention: Change Blindness, Inattentional Blindness Attention: Selective Attention and Consciousness Autobiographical Memory and Consciousness Automaticity and Consciousness Behaviorism in Science and Philosophy Bistable Perception and Consciousness Blindsight Brain Basis of Voluntary Control Brain: Integration, Specialization, and Awareness Brain: Prefrontal Cortex and Awareness Brain: Subcortical Pathways and Consciousness Coma, Persistent Vegetative States, Diminished Consciousness Concepts and Definitions of Consciousness Consciousness and Experienced Effort Consciousness and Visual Illusions Consciousness of Space and Motor Control Cultural Milieu, History, and Intuitive (Folk) Theories of Consciousness Development: Consciousness From Birth to Adulthood Development: The Role of Social Relations, Cultural Assumptions, Theory of Mind Emotion and Consciousness Ethical Implications: Pain, Coma, and Treatment of Other Species Evolution of Consciousness (How Consciousness Evolved as a Tool of Survival) Expectancy, Placebos and Self-Deception Experimental Frameworks for Studying the Neural Basis of Consciousness Free Will Fringe and Partial Consciousness Function(s) of Consciousness General Anesthesia Habit, Action, and Consciousness History of Philosophical Theories of Consciousness History of the Scientific Study of Consciousness Hypnosis and Suggestibility Implicit Processes in Social Psychology Inner Speech and Consciousness Intentionality and Consciousness Intuition, Creativity, and Unconscious Problem Solving Language and Consciousness Memory: Amnesia and Awareness Memory: Control of Memory Memory: Errors, Constructive Processes, and Conscious Retrieval Memory: Implicit Learning and Implicit Memory Memory: Perceptual and Immediate Memory Memory: Procedural Memory, Skill, Perceptual-Motor Learning and Awareness Mental Representation and Consciousness Meta-awareness Mind Wandering and Other Lapses of Attention Mind-Body Problem Neural Basis of Perceptual Awareness in Humans Neurobiological Theories of Consciousness Neurochemical Basis of Consciousness Perception, Action and Consciousness Perception: Implicit, Subliminal Perception: the Coherence of Perception; Binding and Other Processes Perception: Unconscious Influences on Perceptual Interpretation Visual Experience and Immediate Memory Phenomenology of Consciousness Phylogeny and Evolution of Brain Structures and Consciousness Psychoactive Drugs and Conscious Alteration Psychodynamic Theories of Unconscious Activity Psychopathology and Consciousness Religious Experience: Psychology and Neurology Self: Body Awareness and Consciousness Self: Personal Identity Self: the Unity of Self, Self-Consistency Self-Awareness and Introspection Sleep: Dreaming and Consciousness Sleep: Dreaming Data and Theories Social Foundations of Consciousness Social Neuroscience of Groups Subjectivity; First- and Third-Person Analysis Theories of Consciousness: Cognitive Theory of Mind (Neural Basis) Time and Consciousness Unconscious Cognition Unconscious Emotion Unconscious Goals and Motivation Visual Imagery and Consciousness Volition and Voluntary Control William James and Consciousness.