This eighth volume in the series Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis discusses in detail the classification of the CNS tumors as well as brain tumor imaging. Scientists and Clinicians have contributed state of the art chapters on their respective areas of expertise, providing the reader a whole field view of the CNS tumors and brain tumor imaging in Europe. This fully illustrated volume: Explains the genetics of malignant brain tumors and gene amplification using quantitative-PCR; Presents a large number of standard and new imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, amide proton transfer imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance single voxel spectroscopy and intraoperative ultrasound imaging, for staging and diagnosing various primary and secondary brain cancers; Explains the usefulness of imaging methods for planning and monitoring (assessment) therapy for cancers; Discusses diagnosis and treatment of primary CNS lymphomas, CNS atypical teratoid/rhabdoid and CNS Rosai-Dorfman disease; Includes the subject of translational medicine. Professor Hayat has summarized the problems associated with the complexities of research publications and has been successful in editing a must-read volume for oncologists, cancer researchers, medical teachers and students of cancer biology.
Content Level » Professional/practitioner
Keywords » Cancer Methods
Related subjects » Cancer Research - Medicine - Oncology & Hematology - Radiology
Table of contents
1. The World Health Organization Classification of the Central Nervous System Tumors: an Update Using Imaging; Shiori Amemiya Introduction Astrocytic Tumors Pilomyxoid astrocytoma Neuronal and Mixed Neuronal-Glial Tumors Papillary Glioneuronal Tumor Extraventricular Neurocytoma Rosette-Forming Glioneuronal Tumor of the Fourth Ventricle Other Neuroepithelial Tumors Angiocentric Glioma Tumors of the Pineal Region Papillary Tumor of the Pineal Region Embryonal Tumors Medulloblastoma with Extensive Nodularity Anaplastic Medulloblastoma References 2. Brain Tumor Imaging: European Association of Nuclear Medicine Procedure Guidelines; Thierry Vander Borght, Susanne Asenbaum, Peter Bartenstein, Christer Halldin, Ozlem Kapucu, Koen Van Laere, Andrea Varrone, and Klaus Tatsch Introduction Background Information and Definitions Common Indications Indications Detection of Viable Tumor Tissue Tumor Delineation Selecting the Best Biopsy Site Noninvasive Tumor Grading Therapy Planning Tumor Response Contraindications (relative) Procedure Patient Preparation Prearrival Preinjection Information Pertinent to Performance of the Procedure Precautions and Conscious Sedation Radiopharmaceutical Radiopharmaceutical Recommended Dosage Radiation Dosimetry Radiation Dosimetry of Brain Transmission Scans Data Acquisition Time Delay from Injection to Beginning of Data Acquisition Set-up for Data Acquisition Image Processing PET Reconstruction SPECT Reconstruction Reformatting of PET and SPECT Images Comparative Evaluation Interpretation Criteria Visual Interpretation Quantification Reporting General Body of the Report Interpretation and Conclusion Issues Requiring Further Clarification References 3. Assessment of Heterogeneity in Malignant Brain Tumors; Timothy E. Van Meter, Gary Tye, Catherine Dumur, and William C. Broaddus Introduction The problem of Heterogeneity and Its Clinical Significance Previous Studies Assessing Molecular Heterogeneity of Tumors Use of Stereotactic Neuroimaging Systems for Tumor Sampling Methodology Description of Method MRI-Guided Stereotactic Biopsy Integrated Histopathological Scoring Use of Genomics Technologies for Regional Molecular Profiling Results Histopathological Considerations Assessing Quality of Biopsy Extracts Genomic Assessment of Regional Tumor Phenotype Validation Studies Discussion Utility of Stereotactic Biopsy for Tumor Characterization Future Technical Applications Clinical Impact of Improved Tumor Characterization References 4. Diagnosing and Grading of Brain Tumors: Immunohistochemistry; Hidehiro Takei and Suzanne Z. Powell Introduction Immunohistochemical Markers for Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Brain Tumors Immunohistochemical Markers Routinely Used In Diagnostic Neuro-Oncology Practice New Immunohistochemical Markers Applicable to Brain Tumor Diagnosis Useful Immunohistochemical Markers for Differential Diagnosis of Brain Tumors Immunohistochemistry as a Useful Adjunct in Grading of Brain Tumors: Ki-67 and Phospho-Histon H3 Immunohistochemical and Analytical Methods References 5. Malignant Brain Tumors: Roles of Aquaporins; Jerome Badaut and Jean-Francois Brunet Introduction Aquaporin Expression in Normal Brain and its Function Aquaporin Distribution and its Potential Role Aquaporin Astrocyte Endfeet Marker in Brain Water Homeostasis Involvement of Aquaporin 9 Expression in Brain Energy Metabolism Aquaporin Distribution in Tumors: Role in Prognosis and Treatment Aquaporin in tumors: Water Homeostasis or Cell Migration? Aquaporin 4 in Tumors: Biomarker for Tumor Classification AQP9 in Brain Tumors: New Findings References 6. Brain Metastases: Gene Amplification Using Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis; Carmen Franco-Hernandez, Miguel Torres-Martin, Victor Martinez-Glez, Carolina Pena-Granero, Javier S. Castresana, Cacilda Casartelli and Juan A. Rey Introduction Objectives Equipment and Procedure DNA Extraction Quantitative-PCR: Amplification Status Procedure Results Further Considerations References 7. Cyclic Amp Phosphodiesterase-4 in Brain Tumor Biology: Immunochemical Analysis; B. Mark Woerner and Joshua B. Rubin Introduction Materials and Methods Western Blotting Materials Methods Immunohistochemistry Materials Methods Immunocytochemistry Materials Methods Results and Discussion References 8. Radiosurgical Treatment of Progressive Malignant Brain Tumors; Cole A. Giller Introduction Methodology of Treatment Philosophy Methodology of Indications Methodology of Choice of Fractionation Schedule Methodology of Dosimetry Construction of Hypofractionated Plans Case Example Cohort Study References 9. Anti-Vascular Therapy for Brain Tumors; Florence M. Hofman and Thomas C. Chen Introduction Specific Drug Targets Angiogenic Growth Factors Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Migration Bone Marrow-derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells Conclusion References 10. Glial Brain Tumors: Antiangiogenic Therapy; William PJ Leenders and Pieter Wesseling Clinical Features of Glioma Histopathology and Genetics of Gliomas Current Treatment Modalities Antiangiogenesis as Antitumor Therapy Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Angiogenesis Preclinical Antiangiogenesis Therapy for Diagnosis Blood Vessel Normalization Clinical Experience with Antiangiogenesis Therapy Future Perspectives References 11. Brain Tumors: Amide Proton Transfer Imaging; Jinyuan Zhou and Jaishri O. Blakeley Introduction Chemical Exchange-Dependant Saturation Transfer Imaging: Principles and Applications Magnetization Transfer Contrast, Chemical Exchange-Dependant Saturation Transfer and Amide Proton Transfer Amide Proton Transfer Imaging of Experimental Brain Tumor Models Amide Proton Transfer Imaging of Human Brain Tumors References 12. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Rat Models of Invasive Brain Tumors; Sungheon Kim, Steve Pickup, and Harish Poptani Introduction Imaging Tissue Microstructure Diffusion Tensor Diffusion Tensor Metrics Data Acquisition methods Rat Brain Tumor Models 9L Gliosarcoma C6 Glioma F98 Glioma Mayo 22 Hunman Brain Tumor Xenograft Future Considerations Tractography Tumor Cell Density and Diffusion Anisotropy References 13. Brain Tumors: Diffusion Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging; Pia C. Sundgren, Yue Cao, and Thomas L. Chenevert Introduction Imaging Techniques Diffusion Weighted Imaging Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion Imaging in Tissue Characterization Diffusion Imaging in Tumor Grading Diffusion Imaging in Presurgical Planning Diffusion Imaging in Treatment Follow-up Diffusion Imaging in Differentiation of Recurrent Tumor From Radiation Injury and Postsurgical Injury Pitfalls Future Applications References 14. Brain Tumors: Planning and Monitoring Therapy with Positron Emission Tomography; D.J. Coope, K. Herholz, and P. Price Introduction Imaging Brain Tumors with Positron Emission Tomograoghy and FDG Amino Acid PET in Brain Tumors Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in Less Common Tumor Types Delineation of Tumor Extent for Treatment Planning Minimizing Damage to Uninvolved Brain Structures Monitoring Brain Tumors-When is the best time to intervene? Selection of Treatment Modalities
Assessing Response to Treatment and Prognosis The Future of PET Imaging in Brain Tumors References 15. Clinical Evaluation of Primary Brain Tumor: O-(2-[18F]Fluorethyl)-L-Tyrosine Positron Emission Tomography; Matthias Weckesser and Karl-Josef Langen Introduction Intensity and Dynamics of O-(2-[18F]Fluorethyl)-L-Tyrosine-Uptake Correlation of O-(2-[18F]Fluorethyl)-L-Tyrosine-Uptake With Morphological Imaging Recommendations for Image Acquisition and Interpretation Clinical Application References 16. Combined use of [F-18]Fluorodeoxyglucose and [C-11]Methionine in 45 PET-Guided Stereotactic Brain Biopsies; Benoit Pirotte Introduction Materials and Methods Patient Selection Stereotactic PET Data Acquisition Analysis of Stereotactic PET Images and Target Definition Data Analysis Results Abnormal Met and FDG Uptakes Lesions in the Cortical Grey Matter Lesions in the Sub-cortical Grey Matter Specific Contribution of Met-PET and FDG-PET Specificity and Sensitivity to Detect Tumor Tissue Discussion PET for the Guidance of Stereotactic Brain Biopsy Choice of Radiotracer Accuracy of Stereotactic PET Coregistration Comparison Between Met and FDG References 17. Hemorrhagic Brain Neoplasm: 99MTc-Methoxyisobutyl Isonitrile-Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography; Filippo F. Angileri, Fabio Minutoli, Domenico La Torre and Sergio Baldari Introduction Radiopharmaceutical and Technical Issues 99mTc-MIBI-SPECT in Brain Tumors Evaluation 99mTc-MIBI-SPECT in Hemorrhagic Brain Neoplasm References 18. Brain Tumor Imaging Using p-[123I]IODO-L-Phenylalanine and SPECT; Dirk Hellwig Introduction Imaging Method Preparation of 123I-IPA Patient Preparation and Administration of 123I-IPA SPECT Acquisition Correlative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Coregistration of SPECT and NMR Images Qualitative Interpretation and Quantitative Image Analysis Results of Brain Tumor Imaging Using 123I-IPA Initial Evaluation of Suspected Brain Tumors Evaluation of Suspected Recurrence or Progression Quantitative Criteria for the Evaluation of Brain Lesions by IPA-SPECT Comparison of 123I-IPA and 123I-IMT Dosimetry of 123I-IPA Discussion Potential Advancements Acknowledgement References 19. Diagnosis and Staging of Brain Tumors: Magnetic Resonance Single Voxel Spectra; Margarida Julia-Sape, Carles Majos and Carles Arus Introduction Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy What Does Single Voxel MRS Tell us about a Brain Tumor Information Provided by a Single Voxel MR Spectrum Methods How to Perform a Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study When a Brain Tumor is Suspected Acquisition Parameters for Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Reporting on a Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study Quantifying a Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study: Processing a Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectrum Quantifying an MRS Study: Ratio-Based Determinations Quantifying an MRS Study: Classifiers and Decision-Support Systems When There is an Indication for a SV MRS Exam Discrimination Between Tumor and Pseudotumoral Lesion Tumor Classification Follow-up of Brain-Tumors after Treatment References 20. Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Acquisition and Reconstruction: Application to Functional and Spectroscopic Imaging in Human Brain; Fa-Hsuan Lin and Shang-Yueh Tsai Introduction Principles of Parallel MRI Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Acquisitions Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reconstructions Mathematical Formulation Application: Sense Human Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Application: Sense Proton Spectroscopic Imaging Conclusion References 21. Intra-Axial Brain Tumors: Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Elias R. Melhem and Riyadh N. Alokaili Introduction Classification and Overview of Central Nervous System Tumors Intra-Axial Tumor Imaging Protocol Diffusion Imaging Diffusion Tensor Imaging Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Basics of Central Nervous System Tumor Image Interpretation General Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Appearance of Intra-axial Tumors Appearance of Specific Intra-axial Brain Tumors on Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Primary (non-lymphomatous) Neoplasms Secondary Neoplasms (Metastases) Lymphoma Tumefactive Demyelinating Lesions Brain Abscess Encephalitis Approach to an Unknown Intra-axial Brain Tumor Limitations and Future Direction References 22. Brain Tumors: Apparent Diffusion Coefficient at Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Fumiyuki Yamasaki, Kazuhiko Sugiyama and Kaoru Kurisu Introduction Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and T2 Shine-Through Diffusion-Weighted Images Sequences Cellularity and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Clinical Application of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Brain Tumor Grade and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Differentiation of Brain Tumors and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Astrocytomas, Oligodendrogliomas, and Ependymomas Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumors Medulloblastomas, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors, and Ependymomas Central Neurocytomas and Subependymomas Hemanglioblastomas and Other Posterior Cranial Fossa Tumors Glioblastomas, Metastatic Tumors, and Malignant Lymphomas Histologic Subtyping of Meningiomas and schawannomas Pituitary and Parasellar Tumors and Other Tumors Visualizing Tumor Infiltration Distinguishing Tumor Recurrence from Radiation Necrosis Monitoring Treatment Effects Distinguishing Tumor Recurrences from Resection Injury Distinguishing Brain Abscesses from Cystic or Necrotic Malignant Tumors Limitations: Variations in Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Measurements and Selection of Regions of Interest Future Directions References 23. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Tumors Using Iron Oxide Nanoparticles; Matthew A. Hunt and Edward A. Neuwelt Introduction Biologic and Molecular Characteristics Imaging Characteristics Experimental Studies Human Imaging Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Future Directions References 24. Metastatic Solitary Malignant Brain Tumor: Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Nail Bulakbasi and Murat Kocaoglu Introduction Screening and Initial Evaluation Imaging Protocol Imaging Properties of Solitary Brain Metastasis Differential Diagnosis of Solitary Brain Metastasis Future Trends and Conclusion References 25. Brain Tumor Resection: Intraoperative Ultrasound Images; Christof Renner Introduction General Principles Principles of Intraoperative Ultrasound Examination Efficacy of Intraoperative Ultrasound References 26. Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas: Salvage Treatment; Michele Reni, Elena Mazza, and Andres J. M. Ferreri Introduction Diagnostic Workup at Relapse Prognostic Factors Methodological Issues Whole-Brain Radiotherapy Chemotherapy Single Agent Chemotherapy Retreatment with Methotrexate Combination Chemotherapy Monoclonal Antibodies High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem-cell Rescue Intrathecal Chemotherapy Conclusions References 27. Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors: Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Receptor; Michael A. Grotzer, Tarek Shalaby and Alexandre Arcaro Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Role in CNS Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Analytical Methods Immunohistochemistry Immunoprecipitation Western Blotting Quantitative RT-PCR Cell Viability Detection of Apoptosis Evaluation of IGF-I/-II/IGF-IR IN CNS AT/RT Down-Regulation of IGF-IR Therapeutic Significance of IGF-IR IN CNS AT/RT References 28. Central Nervous System Rosai-Dorfman Disease; Osama Raslan, Leena M. Ketonen, Gregory N. Fuller and Dawid Schellingerhout Introduction, Epidemioligy and Etiology Intracranial Rosai Dorfman Disease: Clinical and Imaging Findings and Diffrential Diagnosis Spinal Rosai Dorfman Disease: Clinical and Imaging Findings Histopathological and Diffinate Diagnosis Clinical Course and Treatment References