Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious viral disease mainly affecting birds. It is often causing no apparent signs of illness. AI viruses can sometimes spread to domestic poultry and cause significantoutbreaks of serious disease. The aim of this handbook is to provide the most updated information (aetiology, epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, control...) of these viruses with a practical and visualapproach. The handbook has been written by prestigious and renowned experts with a wide experience in this field. Numerous graphic resources have been included to complement the informationprovided and make the contents more understandable and accessible to readers.
History and reports of influenza viruses
Notification to OIE
2. Classification of AIV
Species specific influenza A viruses
Antigenic variation of strains-drift and
Additional AIV classifications
3. Avian immune responses
Innate immune responses
Adaptive immune response
Cell-mediated immunity (CMI)
Evasion of immune response by influenza
Receptor binding specificity
5. Clinical signs and pathology
6. Sampling and diagnosis
Assessment of pathogenicity
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and
7. Prevention and control
Prevention and control of AI outbreaks
Transfer of passive immunity in birds
Eradication of AI
Helena Lage Ferreira
Dr. Ferreira has DVM degree at São Paulo State University (UNESP, Brazil), PhD in Genetics and Molecular Biology at University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Brazil), and Post-doctoral studies onAvian Influenza at the Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR, Belgium). She wasresearch assistant at VAR and currently works as Assistant Professor at University of São Paulo, Brazil.
Her research interests are focused on epidemiology, diagnosis tests, protection and immunityafforded by vaccines of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry, including avianinfluenza, Newcastle disease and avian metapneumovirus. She has been awarded with the Bunge Foundation Awards - Animal and Plant Health Protection - Youth category (2011), Best Poster Award - young Investigator category at the 7th International Symposium on Avian Influenza (2009). Dr. Ferreira is member of Committee for Poultry Health National Program
at the Ministry of Agriculture, Brazil.
Taiana Pereira da Costa
Dr. Costa is a veterinary surgeon (UNESP, Brazil) with a PhD in Veterinary Pathology (Universityof Georgia, USA) and Post-doctoral studies on Avian Virology and Pathology (AutonomousUniversity of Barcelona, Spain).
Her research interests are focused on host factors that affect viral pathogenesis, particularly avianinfluenza viruses in poultry and wild birds. She has received awards for her work with avianvirology, including the Best Poster Award at the Southern Conference on Avian Diseases/IPSF (2010), the Terry Amundson Student Presentation Award at the International Conference of theWildlife Disease Association (2010), and the Second Place Poster Award - Graduate Studentcategory at the 7th International Symposium on Avian Influenza (2009).
Cintia Hiromi Okino
Graduated in Veterinary Medicine and concluded MS and PhD in Veterinary Pathology at São Paulo State University (UNESP- Brazil). Dr. Okino works at the Avian Virology Laboratory, Embrapa Swine and Poultry, a Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, where she developsresearch on avian respiratory viruses (Avian Infectious Bronchitis virus, Avian Metapneumovirus, Newcastle disease virus and Avian Influenza virus). The research includes evaluation of Immune
Responses and Molecular Diagnostics for these diseases. She has published articles about AvianInfectious Bronchitis virus in national and international journals and she won the “José Maria de Lammas Filho award” in 2013 during the Brazilian Poultry Sciences meeting (FACTA).
Shamus Patrick Keeler
He completed an MS and MEd in Biology from East Stroudsburg University (East
Stroudsburg, PA, USA), and a PhD in infectious diseases at the University of Georgia (Athens, GA, USA). Dr. Keeler is a postdoctoral research scholar at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, where he researches the innate immune response against influenza A virus. He has been involved in research on a wide range of wildlife pathogens including AvianInfluenza virus, Avian Coccidiosis, and several bacterial pathogens of white-tailed deer. He won the Wildlife Disease Association Graduate Student Scholarship Award in 2012 and has receivedpostdoctoral fellowships from both the Morris Animal Foundation and the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
After graduation in Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Munir has completed his PhD studies on thepathobiology of poultry viruses at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. Dr. Munir is now Institute Fellow on Avian Innate Immunity and Host Genetic Diversity at ThePirbright Institute, UK. Research of Dr. Munir’s Group aims to understand the innate immuneresponses in different avian hosts that range from sensing of viruses to terminal IFN effectorsmediated by myriad interferon stimulated genes. They have adapted large-scale, genome-wideand high throughput lentivirus-based screening platforms to investigate, both generically and specifically, the interaction of viruses with host immune esponses, deciphering differential host responses to diverse avian pathogen, and the bases for genetic resistance/susceptibility of different avian species. They are also investigating the strategies that viruses use to escape fromhost defenses. Using reverse-genetics systems for Newcastle disease virus and avianmetapneumoviruses, they are applying genome-wide transcriptomics and proteomics approachesto understand the molecular determinants of viral pathogenesis and the ways that viruses haveadapted to circumvent these responses. With his extensive experience in Veterinary Virology, Dr. Munir has published more than 55 articles, 4 books and 12 chapters in different books.