Sperm Chromatin: An Overview.- Sperm Nucleoproteins (Histones and Protamines).- Sperm Nuclear Architecture.- Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA (R)): Evolution from Origin to Clinical Utility.- TUNEL Assay.- TUNEL Assay by Bench Top Flow Cytometer in Clinical Laboratories.- The Comet Assay.- Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) Assay.- Cytochemical Tests of Sperm Chromatin Maturity.- Is There an Optimal Sperm DNA Test?.- Oxidative Stress.- Apoptosis in Ejaculated Spermatozoa and in the Normal and Pathological Testes: Abortive Apoptosis and Sperm Chromatin Damage.- Defective Spermatogenesis and Sperm DNA Damage.- Sperm Chromatin and Lifestyle Factors.- Cancer and Sperm DNA Damage.- Sperm Chromatin and Environmental Factors.- Sperm DNA Damage and Oocyte Repair Capability.- Experimental Studies on Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Reproductive Outcomes.- Sperm DNA and Natural Pregnancy.- Sperm DNA and ART (IUI, IVF, ICSI) Pregnancy.- Sperm DNA and Pregnancy Loss after IVF and ICSI.- Sperm DNA Tests are Clinically Useful: Pro.- Sperm DNA Tests Are Clinically Useful: CON.- Antioxidant Therapy.- Varicocelectomy.- Physiological Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Insemination Based on Hyaluronic Acid Binding Ability.- Advanced Sperm Processing / Selection Techniques.- Use of Testicular Sperm for ICSI: Pro.- Debate on the Use of Testicular Sperm for ICSI: Con.- Strategies to Diminish DNA Damage in Sperm Samples used for ART.- Sperm DNA Testing: Where Do We Go from Here?
This comprehensive, up-to-date text, which brings together the key practical elements of the rapidly evolving field of sperm DNA and chromatin abnormalities, is divided thematically into five main sections. Part I discusses human sperm chromatin structure and nuclear architecture, while part II presents laboratory evaluation of sperm DNA damage, including SCSA, SCD, TUNEL and Comet assays, and cytochemical tests. Biological and clinical factors in the etiology of sperm DNA damage are discussed in part III, including oxidative stress, abortive apoptosis, cancer, and environmental and lifestyle factors. Part IV presents clinical studies on the utility of sperm DNA damage tests, both with natural and ART-assisted pregnancies, and debates the clinical utility of such tests. Finally, part V discusses current treatment options, such as antioxidant therapy, varicocelectomy, advanced sperm processing techniques and the use of testicular sperm.
We are now beginning to better understand the unique organization of the sperm chromatin, as well as the nature and etiology of sperm DNA damage. Written and edited by worldwide experts in andrology, A Clinician's Guide to Sperm DNA and Chromatin Damage is an excellent resource for reproductive medicine and REI specialists, urologists, reproductive biologists and any professional working with the infertile male.
Armand Zini, MD, FRCSC, Professor, Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, St. Mary's Hospital Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Ashok Agarwal, PhD, HCLD, Professor, Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Director, Andrology Center, Director, American Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Urology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA