This book is an ideal, up-to-date guide to the application of fetal interventions and hybrid procedures, in which the surgeon and the interventional cardiologist work together, for the treatment of congenital heart diseases at a very early stage when disease outcome may be altered. State of the art data and clear instruction are offered on techniques such as fetal pulmonary and aortic valve dilatation, fetal interatrial septum stenting, hybrid defect closure, hybrid stent implantation, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome therapy. Recognized experts describe the benefits of such early interventions, particularly evident in the case of valve disease, and explain how the hybrid strategy, by combining advantages and tools from each approach, can reduce invasiveness and risks and improve results. The book also looks ahead to the likely impact of new technologies, including nanotechnology, that will soon be available. Fetal and Hybrid Procedures in Congenital Heart Diseases will be a rich source of knowledge, step-by-step guidance, and practical tips and tricks for obstetricians/gynecologists, fetal cardiologists, pediatric cardiologists, interventional cardiologists, congenital cardiac surgeons, anesthesiologists, and intensivists.