The enormous progress made during the last decade has resulted in a better conceptual understanding of mineral ion metabolism in general. With regard to chronic kidney disease, the two most affected nutrients are phosphate and vitamin D. This book provides an overview of the physiological aspects of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, and how their pathological dysregulation facilitates advancement of chronic kidney disease. It looks into the complex molecular and organ cross-talks during disease progression that range from the involvement of fibroblast growth factor (FGF23)-klotho system to impaired phosphate transport to hormonal dysfunctions of PTH and vitamin D. Each chapter clearly presents the clinically and biologically important problems and lists the key unsolved issues related to chronic kidney disease and beyond. Illustrations explaining multi-factorial and multi-organ interactions provide an easy outline for the reader to appreciate the complex biological pathways. For those without prior familiarity with the subject matter, this volume may serve as a quick reference to get updated information on phosphate and vitamin D metabolism.