While microsurgical techniques have already become common knowledge in ENT surgery, a new era has begun with the development of endoscopic surgery. Thereby, however, structures on the opposite side are seen best, not those which have already been examined by the endoscope. One solution to this problem is a biportal approach to the middle ear. Filling an essential gap in anatomical and ENT literature, this atlas shows the various approaches to the middle ear, e.g., through the tympanic membrane or through the Eustachian tube, which allow safe surgical manipulations.
Table of Contents
- Transmeatal approach.
- Transtympanic approach:
- Anterior inferior transtympanic approach;
- Posterior superior transtympanic approach;
- Posterior inferior transtympanic approach.
- Transmastoid approach:
- Through antrum;
- Through facial recess.
- Transtubal approach.
- Two-port approach.