SECTION I: Principles and Tools of Respiratory Microbiome Investigation.- Conceptual Framework and Hypothesis Testing.- Study Design and Sampling Considerations.- Laboratory Platforms to Study the Microbiome.- Analysis and Reporting of Microbiome Data.- SECTION II: Applications in the Study of Specific Diseases.- Chronic Rhinosinusitis /Allergic Rhinitis.- Bronchiolitis, Viral Infection and Pediatric Asthma Risk.- Asthma Pheotype.- Cystic Fibrosis.- Bronchiectasis (non-CF).- COPD.- Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.- Lung Transplantation and Immune Suppression.- The Future: Knowledge gaps and priorities.
This book comprehensively covers the microbiome in respiratory disease, from the initial research study to the disease-specific implications and related applications. Research on the respiratory microbiome is increasing in volume and scope. This reflects rapidly growing interest in the study of respiratory disease to understand how microbiota shape mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The respiratory tract spans the nasal passages, sinus cavities, oropharynx, and the tracheobronchial tree of the lungs. In these compartments of the upper and lower respiratory tract, the microbiota have now been studied in the context of several chronic respiratory conditions. These include chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis and pulmonary fibrosis, to name a few. The potential impact of ecological interactions (i.e., between microbes and between microbiota and host) within and across respiratory compartments is increasingly recognized.
The book is organized into two main sections. Part I, Principles and Tools, covers conceptual modeling of the respiratory microbiome, experimental methodology with a focus on a priori considerations in study design and sampling, laboratory and computational methods for analysis of respiratory microbiome data, and minimizing interpretive pitfalls. Part II, Applications, discusses the evidence from specific studies that have shed novel insights into the influence of respiratory microbiota on mechanisms or outcomes in specific diseases. Based on current best evidence, disease-specific chapters include chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma (pediatric and adult studies), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), bronchiectasis not due to CF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and lung transplant.
This is an ideal reference for forward-thinking practitioners with interest in novel developments in precision medicine applications in lung disease, as well as translational scientists in the field of microbiology, immunology and lung biology.
Dr. Huang is Assistant Professor in the Division of Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine at the University of Michigan. She has directed numerous respiratory microbiome investigations of asthma and COPD, including NIH multi-center studies. Her research laboratory utilizes interdisciplinary approaches to understand how the compositional structure and functions of airway and gut microbiota affect airway disease phenotype. Dr. Huang has served on numerous panels and committees regarding microbiome science and respiratory disease, including for the National Academy of Science, Engineering and Medicine.
Dr. Garantziotis is Staff Clinician, Principal Investigator and Medical Director of the Clinical Research Unit at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. His research focuses on gene-environment interactions in the pathogenesis of lung disease. He is leading a number of studies on the role of the microbiome in lung injury and is the Chairperson of the working group “Microbiome in Lung Disease” of the American Thoracic Society, Allergy, Immunology and Inflammation Assembly.