Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Dissociated Vertical Divergence: A Righting Reflex Gone Wrong Chapter 3: DVD Remains a Moving Target Chapter 4: Primary Inferior Oblique Overaction: The Brain Throws a Wild Pitch Chapter 5: Do You Really Need Your Oblique Muscles? Adaptations and Exaptations Chapter 6: Latent Nystagmus: Vestibular Nystagmus with a Twist Chapter 7: Dissociated Vertical Divergence: Perceptual Consequences of the Human Dorsal Light Reflex Chapter 8: Visuo-Vestibular Eye Movements: Infantile Nystagmus in Three Dimensions Chapter 9: Does Infantile Esotropia Arise from a Dissociated Deviation Chapter 10: The Lizard's Tail: An Ocular Allegory Chapter 11: The Accessory Optic System: The Fugitive Visual Control System in Infantile Strabismus Chapter 12: The Optokinetic Cover Test: Subcortical Optokinesis in Infantile Esotropia Chapter 13: An Expanded View of Infantile Esotropia: Bottoms Up! Chapter 14: A Unifying Neurologic Mechanism for Infantile Nystagmus Chapter 15: An Optokinetic Clue to the Pathogenesis of Infantile Esotropia Chapter 16: Intermittent Exotropia and Accommodative Esotropia: Two Ends of a Spectrum? Chapter 17: Is Infantile Esotropia Subcortical in Origin? Chapter 18: Phoria Adaptation: The Ghost in the Machine Chapter 19: Monocular Nasotemporal Asymmetry: Unravelling the Mystery Chapter 20: Intermittent Exotropia: A Deficit in Phoria Adaptation?
This text is a comprehensive collection and discussion of scientific essays that define the pathogenesis of common forms of pediatric strabismus and nystagmus in terms of their common evolutionary mechanisms. The goal of this book is to assemble these essays, to provide a definitive source for current clinicians to use along with follow up comments to help direct future scientific research in the field of pediatric ophthalmology. This book includes 20 original essays written by Michael C. Brodsky which mechanistically explain and unify such enigmatic conditions such as infantile esotropia, latent nystagmus, primary oblique muscle overreaction action, dissociated vertical divergence, infantile nystagmus, and intermittent exotropia in terms of ancestral evolutionary reflexes which become expressed in different ways to generate these disorders.
This collection of essays is poised to become a classic reference, providing the necessary neurological framework for contextualizing unique ocular motor disorder and understanding the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for their development in early childhood.
Written with focused interest for pediatric ophthalmologists and neuro-ophthalmologists, this reference will also find audience with ophthalmologists, neurologists, evolutionary biologists, and neuroscientists.
Michael C. Brodsky, MD Mayo Clinic, Rochester Prosfessor, Department of Ophthalmology Professor, Department of Neurology