- reviews digestion and absorption of food components including oral physiology
and gut microbial ecology
- evaluates advances in methods to study food sensory perception assessing criteria such as simulation of flavour released from foods
- investigates the implications for the design of functional foods including optimising the flavour of low-fat foods and controlling the release of glucose
- examines new methods and future trends
The breakdown of food structures in the gastrointestinal tract has a major impact on the sensory properties and nutritional quality of foods. Advances in understanding the relationship between food structure and the breakdown, digestion and transport of food components within the GI tract facilitate the successful design of health-promoting foods. This important collection reviews key issues in these areas.
Opening chapters in Part one examine oral physiology and gut microbial ecology. Subsequent chapters focus on the digestion, absorption and physiological effects of significant food components, such as lipids, proteins and vitamins. Part two then reviews advances in methods to study food sensory perception, digestion and absorption, including in vitro simulation of the stomach and intestines and the use of stable isotopes to determine mineral bioavailability. The implications for the design of functional foods are considered in Part three. Controlling lipid bioavailability using emulsion-based delivery systems, designing foods to induce satiation and self-assembling structures in the GI tract are among the topics covered.
With contributions from leading figures in industry and academia, Designing functional foods provides those developing health-promoting products with a broad overview of the wealth of current knowledge in this area and its present and future applications.
…highly relevant and contains scientific and practical data on efficacy, modes of action, health claims (EFSA), and product applications… Food Science and Technology
About the editors
David Julian McClements and Eric Andrew Decker are Professors in the Department of Food Science at the University of Massachusetts. They are widely respected for their research into food biopolymers, colloids, emulsions, structured delivery systems, bioavailability, and lipid oxidation.
PART 1 DIGESTION AND ADSORPTION OF FOOD COMPONENTS
Oral physiology, mastication and food perception
A van der Bilt, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
Introduction. Food processing in the mouth. Influence of food characteristics on chewing. Oral physiology and food perception. Neuromuscular control of chewing and swallowing. Influence of age on oral physiology, food perception, and nutrient intake. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Gut microbial ecology
H J Flint, S H Duncan and P Louis, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, UK
Introduction. Microbial community composition. Microbial metabolism of dietary components. Interplay between gut transit, pH and the microbial community. Role of microbial metabolites in health and gut function. New methods for studying the gut microbiota. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. Acknowledgements. References.
Digestion and absorption of lipids
D Lairon, Université de la Méditerranée, France
Introduction. Stuctural and physicochemical aspects. Lipid digestion and absorption: basics and variability. Mechanisms relating lipid absorption and health. Implications for the development of functional foods and future trends. References.
Physicochemical basis of the digestion and absorption of triacylglycerol
C M Lo and P Tso, University of Cincinnati, USA
Introduction. Luminal digestion of dietary lipids. Importance of micellar solubilization in the uptake of dietary lipids by enterocytes. Mucosal brush border membrane lipid transporters. Intracellular metabolism of dietary lipids. Formation of intestinal chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins. Clinical disorders of intestinal lipid transport. Conclusions. Acknowledgements. References.
Non-starch polysaccharides in the gastrointestinal tract
A C Ouwehand, K Tiihonen, H Mäkeläinen and N Rautonen, Danisco, Finland, O Hasselwander, Danisco, UK and G Sworn, Danisco, France
Introduction. Types of non-starch polysaccharides. Digestion of non-starch polysaccharide. Non-starch polysaccharide fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract: research models. Mechanisms of health effects of non-starch polysaccharides. Non-starch polysaccharides and mucosal adhesion. Applications of non-starch polysaccharides in functional foods. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Digestion and absorption of proteins and peptides
P J Moughan, Massey University, New Zealand
Introduction. Chemical determination of proteins and amino acids in foods. Protein digestion and amino acid absorption. Amino acid metabolism. Proteins, peptides and amino acids functioning as bioactives. The role of proteins, peptides and amino acids in the development of nutritionals and functional foods. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Digestion and absorption of lipophilic food micronutrients (vitamins A, E,
D and K, carotenoids and phytosterols)
M J Amiot-Carlin, INSERM, France
Introduction on lipophilic food microconstituents. Liposoluble micronutrients: main roles, food sources, recommended dietary allowance or adequate intake. Health roles of liposoluble vitamins, carotenoids and phytosterols. Main biochemical functions of lipophilic micronutrients. Bioavailability. Future trends. References.
Bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds and glucosinolates
F A Tomás-Barberán, A Gil-Izquierdo, D A Moreno, CEBAS-CSIC, Spain
Introduction. Phenolic compound bioavailability, absorption and tissue distribution. Colonic metabolism of dietary phenolic compounds. Colonic microbiota responsible for dietary phenolic compound metabolism. Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates. Future trends. Acknowledgements. References.
Developing effective probiotic products: bioavailability and other factors
S Lahtinen, N Rautonen and A Ouwehand, Danisco, Finland, A Henrikson, Danisco, Singapore and P Steele, Danisco, USA
Introduction. Selecting probiotics. Experimental methods for efficacy studies. Health benefits of probiotics. Proposed mechanisms of probiotic health effects. Applications with probiotics. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
PART 2 ADVANCES IN RESEARCH METHODS TO STUDY FOOD SENSORY PERCEPTION, DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
Measuring the oral behaviour of foods
I A M Appelqvist, CSIRO, Australia
Introduction. In vivo visualisation measurements for understanding food behaviour in the mouth. Measuring solid food fracture breakdown upon oral processing. Measuring soft-solid food breakdown and interaction with saliva. Measuring soft-solid food interactions with oral surfaces: lubrication and binding. Artificial mouth models. Conclusions. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Measurement and simulation of flavour release from foods
A J Taylor, University of Nottingham, UK
Introduction. Measuring flavour. Methods to measure the flavour profile during eating and drinking. Flavour release: mechanisms, effects of food structure and oral processing. Simulating flavour release from food in vitro. Future trends. References.
Improving in vitro simulation of the stomach and intestines
K Venema, R Havenaar and M Minekus, TNO Quality of Life, The Netherlands
Introduction. Models of gastrointestinal function. The TNO in vitro models of the gastrointestinal-tract (TIM-systems). Model validation. Models for different applications. Applications. Future trends. Source for further information and advice. References
The use of Caco-2 cells in defining nutrient bioavailability: application to
iron bioavailabilty of foods
R Glahn, Cornell University, USA
Introduction. Origin of the Caco-2 cell line. In vitro measurement of iron bioavailability. The physiology of the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model. Validation of the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model: comparison to human studies of Fe availability. Justification for use of the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model as a screening tool. Conclusion. References.
Techniques for assessing the functional response to food of the stomach and
small and large intestine
R Spiller, P Gowland and L. Marciani, University of Nottingham, UK
Introduction. Evolution of techniques to study the gastrointestinal response to feeding. Imaging specific regions of the gut using magnetic resonance imaging. Compromised gastrointestinal function and gastrointestinal drug studies. Future trends. Conclusion. Acknowledgements. References.
Advances in the use of animal models for analysing intestinal cancers and protective
effects of dietary components
H Xiao, University of Massachusetts, USA
Introduction. Human colorectal cancer. Intestine carcinogenesis models in rodents. Dietary components in colon cancer prevention. Conclusion. References.
Using stable isotopes to determine mineral bioavailability of functional foods
S A Abrams, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, USA
Introduction. Methodological issues in using stable isotopes to study human nutrition. Study example: enhancement of calcium absorption by prebiotics in adolescents. Results from this study. Sources of further information and advice. Future trends. Summary and conclusions. References.
PART 3 IMPLICATIONS
Optimising the flavour of low-fat foods
S Bayarri and E Costell, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos. CSIC, Spain
Introduction. Flavour perception. The role of fat in flavour perception. Strategies for replacing fat and implications for flavour. Acknowledgements. References.
Design of foods for the optimal delivery of basic tastes
G J van den Oever, J Busch, E van der Linden, G Smit and N J Zuidam, Unilever R&D, The Netherlands
Introduction. Oral factors. Effects of food structures on tastes. Effects of cross-modal interactions on tastes. Integrated sensory response modelling. Future trends. References.
Oral processing and perception of food emulsions: relevance for fat reduction
G A van Aken and E H A de Hoog, TI Food and Nutrition and NIZO food research and NIZO Food Research, The Netherlands, M H Vingerhoeds, TI Food and Nutrition and Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands
Introduction. Behaviour and perception of emulsions in the oral environment. Creating food emulsions with improved texture and mouth feel. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Controlling lipid bioavailability using emulsion-based delivery systems
D J McClements and E Decker, University of Massachusetts, USA
Introduction. Lipid ingestion, digestion and absorption. Lipid bioavailability. Impact of lipid type and concentration on bioavailability. Emulsion-based delivery systems. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. Acknowledgement. References.
Controlling the delivery of glucose in foods
G Zhang, Jiangnan University, China, Z Ao and B R Hamaker, Purdue University, USA
Introduction. Glucose delivery and health effects. The carbohydrate digestion process and human enzyme properties. Structural basis and mechanism of slow digestion carbohydrate. Formulating low-glycemic index foods. Testing the glycemic index of foods. Future trends. References.
Protein micro/nano particles for controlled nutraceutical delivery in functional
L Chen, University of Alberta, Canada
Introduction. Advantages of protein matrices for controlled delivery. Formation of food protein micro/nanoparticles. Protein structure, physical and biological behavior in gastrointestinal tract. Food applications. Conclusion and future trends. Acknowledgement. References.
Self-assembling structures in the gastrointestinal tract
T J Foster, University of Nottingham and I T Norton, University of Birmingham, UK
Introduction. Self-structuring liquid products. Effects on satiety. Incorporation into food products. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Designing foods to induce satiation: a flavour perspective
R M A J Ruijschop, K M M Burseg, T T Lambers and J Overduin, NIZO food research, The Netherlands
Introduction. Understanding of sensory satiation. Design of tasty foods with enhanced satiation. Future trends. Acknowledgements. References.
Health food product composition, structure and bioavailability
G S M J E Duchateau and W Klaffke, Unilever R&D, The Netherlands
Health foods: the role of bioavailability. The role of physiology. Bioaccessibility parameters. Release of the active ingredients from the food matrix. Physiochemical properties and bioavailability. Gastric-intestinal of stability of the active ingredient. Meal factors. “Practical guide”. Conclusion. Acknowledgement. References.
Coenzyme Q10: functional benefits, dietary uptake and delivery mechanisms
I Amar-Yuli, A Aserin and N Garti, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Chemical characteristics and human functionality of Coenzyme Q10. Functions of Coenzyme Q10. Distribution of Coenzyme Q. Aging. Diseases – Coenzyme Q10 content dependence. Coenzyme Q10 dietary uptake. Coenzyme Q10 delivery techniques. Summary. References.