2-1 Transverse stabilisation factors of the ankle 2-2 Antero-posterior stabilization factors 2-2-1 Factors limiting the flexion 2-2-2 Factors limiting the extension 2-2-2-1 Bone factors 2-2-2-2 Capsulolabral factors 2-2-2-3 Muscular factors 3-1 Dinosaurs 3-2 Birds 3-3 Primates 3-3-1 Human model 3-3-2 Australopithecus 3-3-3 Great apes 1 From the beginning of the heel strike phase to the point X 2-2 From the point X to the heel off phase 4-1 The beginning of the support phase 4-2 At point X 4-3 The end of phase C after point X 4-4 End of the midstance phase and beginning of the swing phase 2-1 Convergence towards normality and utility 2-2 Deviation from normality 1-1 Introductioin 1-2 Anatomical reminder 1-3 Clinical aspect 1-4 Surgical treatment 2- The first metatarsophalangeal joint 2-1 Biomecanics 2-2 Pathophysiology 2-3 Surgical treatment 4-1 Passive structures 4-2 An active structure : Flexor digitorum longus (FDL) 4-3 In total 3-1 Comparative anatomy 3-2 Mecanism of the extension 3-2-1 Anatomy 3-2-2 Biomecanics 3-2-3 Conclusion 3-3 Surgical consequences 3-3-1 Selective section of the Extensor digitorum longus muscle 3-3-2 Technique 4-1 Anatomo-functional reminder 4-2 What can we theoretically sacrifice ? 5-1 Introduction 5-2 Anatomo-functional comparison betweel human and non-human foot 5-3 Robustness of the metatarsals and the second metatarsal 5-4 Indentation or embedding of the second metatarsal 5-5 Metatarsal-ground angle 5-6 Consequences 5-7 Metatarsal torsion and plantar arch 2-1 The gravitational force 2-1-1 Seniority 2-1-2 Intricacy between rigid bone skeleton and calcium homeostasis 2-1-3 Dissemination through the whole organism 2-1-3-1 Plant tissue 2-1-3-2 Bone tissue 2-1-3-3 Heart, circulatory system and lungs 2-1-3-4 Muscular tissue 2-1-3-5 Nervous and vestibular systems 2-1-3-6 Genetics 2-1-3-7 Stem cells 2-1-4 Spread to the whole plant kingdom 2-2 Associated forces 2-2-1 Animal 2-2-2 Plant 3-1 Animal 3-1-1 Otocyst and otoliths 3-2-2 Osteocyte 3-2 Plant 4-1 Among the animals 4-1-1 Cytoskeleton 4-1-2 Extracellular matrix 4-2 Among the plants 4-2-1 Cytoskeleton 4-2-2 Extracellular matrix 4-2-3 In total 5-1 On the animal side 5-2 On the plant side 5-3 In total 6-1 Physical data used 6-1-1 Youngs modulus (E) 6-1-2 Second moment of area (Iz) 6-1-3 Calculation of the bending moment 6-2 Elements modifying the Youngs modulus 6-2-1 Hydroxyapatite and animal collagen 6-2-2 Plant elaboration of a composite material 6-2-3 Changing trabecular bone orientation 6-2-4 Orientation change by curvature of the branch: reaction wood 6-3 Elements modifying the second moment of area 6-3-1 Increase in diameter 6-3-2 Compromise between hollow and solid tubes 6-3-3 Curvature change 6-3-4 Ovalization of the section slice 6-4 Elements changing both parameters 6-5 Influence of the frequency of the application of the constraints 6-6 In total
Comparative anatomy helps to define among surgical procedures, those that are able to restore early walking function using really useful structures, without necessarily respecting the normal anatomy. This book proposes an original vision based on the following ideas : The cure is complete only if it occurs quickly, which is vital for vulnerable patients. The surgical goal isnt the anatomical restitution ad integrum, but to resore the fonction, that of the permanent terrestrial human bipedalism. To identify it, put it back into its evolutionary context and compare it to the anatomo-functional models of our closest relatives, the great apes. Achieving this dual objective through new surgical techniques (percutaneous and minimally invaseve), associated with biomechanical data for immediate and total support.
Cyrille CAZEAU, M.D. : Foot and ankle surgeon