Drawing on 45 years’ study of pediatric laryngology, phoniatrics, and bronchology, this multidisciplinary book describes 42 different pathological sounds - occurring in different combinations - in 54 different pathological conditions. Uniquely, while recognizing the indispensability of conventional investigation methods - endoscopy, radiology, MRI - the Editors demonstrate the value of perceptive-auditive evaluation and objective acoustic analysis as a complimentary diagnostic tool.
With an accompanying DVD, they visually - through spectograms, endoscopic photos, and radiologic or MRI pictures - and audibly demonstrate the acoustic characteristics of the pathological sound phenomena, the different irregular or unusual sounds occurring in, and the characteristic of each respiratory or neuro-developmental disease and disorder. Throughout, the editors demonstrate the value of this complimentary diagnostic and rehabilitation tool for airway obstructions and the various pathological and neuro-developmental anomalies in the pediatric population. Their coverage of the latest therapeutic options for each disease or disorder renders this book a virtual guide to every aspect of pediatric laryngology.
Chapter 1. Introduction - J. Hirschberg, T. Szende, P. Koltai, A. Illényi
Chapter 2. The Sound Phenomena Investigated: Cry, Stridor, and Cough - J. Hirschberg, T. Szende, P. Koltai
Chapter 3. Historical background - J. Hirschberg
The Infant Cry. Stridor. Cough
Chapter 4. Patients - J. Hirschberg, P. Koltai, Zs. Farkas
Chapter 5. Methods
Conventional examination methods, their critical analysis, and sphere of indication - I. Lellei, J. Hirschberg, P. Koltai, Zs. Garay
Examination of cases with pathologic phonation, unusual infant cry
Evaluation of stridor
Evaluation of cough
Basic principles of acoustics, methods of acoustic investigation, sound spectrography - T. Szende, A. Illényi
The acoustic structure of sound phenomena
Duration (length) of sounds
Melody of the cry
Applied methods for acoustic analysis
Minimal time interval spectrum
Measurement of the fundamental frequency
Analysis of the infant cry with digital signal processing (DSP) Gy. Várallyay
The infant cry as an acoustic signal
Available techniques to record the infant cry
Preprocessing of the infant cry
Processing of the infant cry
Attributes in the time domain
Discrete Fourier Transform
Acoustic attributes in the spectrum
Methods for detecting the fundamental frequency
Detecting the melody contour of the infant cry
Duration of cry segments
Development of the fundamental frequency
Melody of the infant cry
Sound in medicine; noninvasive diagnostic methods
Nasometry - Z. Trenovszki, J. Hirschberg
Bioinformatics and genomics - Z. Benyó, B. Benyó
Chapter 6. Characterization and Acoustic Description of the Most Commonly Occurring Sound Signals - T. Szende, J. Hirschberg
Clear (pure, regular, normal) cry. Veiled cry. Hoarse cry. Hyperkinetic (tense) cry. Pressed (forced) cry. Raucous cry. Crackling cry. Sharp cry. Shrill (piping, shrieking, screeching) cry. Creaking cry. Very high (high pitched) cry. Bleating (quavering) cry. Sizzling (fizzling, crepitating) cry. Faint (inert, weak, languid) cry. Wan (meagre, low-energy) cry. Bitonal cry. Broken phonation (breaking, breaklike) cry. Aphonic cry. Hollow (cavernous) cry. Dull (colorless) cry.
Types of stridor
Pharyngeal-type stridor. Interrupted pharyngeal stridors (with quasiperiodic acoustic structure). Sawing (buzzing) stridor. Rasping stridor. Croaking stridor. Snoring stridor. Bubbling (gurgling) stridor. Divided pharyngeal stridor. Lump-in-the-throat stridor. Supraglottic stridor (high, sharp, and loud inspiration and expiration). Cackling (clucking) stridor. Hissing (whistling, sibilant) stridor. Stridor-phonation. Crowing stridor. Stridor of subglottic character. Deep-hollow stridor. Hollow stridor. Tracheal stridor. Spastic (wheezy) expiratory stridor
Types of coughing sound
Nondescript cough. Catarrhal cough. Barking cough. Cough-phonation. Deep cough. Hollow cough. Ringing cough. Brassy, ringing cough. Metallic, ringing cough. Staccato cough. Suppressed, painful cough.
Chapter 7. Airway and Nervous Anomalies Associated with Pathologic Sound Production
Disorders affecting the nose, oral cavity, pharynx, and ears - J. Hirschberg, Zs. Farkas, P. Koltai
Choanal atresia. Micrognathia. Robin sequence. Cleft palate (CP), velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Hearing impairment, hearing loss. De Lange syndrome. Hurler’s syndrome (multiple dysostosis, gargoylism) Mental retardation, mental deficiency. Enlarged, hypertrophied tonsils, adenoid vegetation.
Disorders affecting the larynx - J. Hirschberg, P. Koltai, I. Lellei, Zs. Garay, G. Katona
Epiglottitis (supraglottic inflam¬mation). Acute laryngitis. Laryngeal croup (acute fibrinous laryngitis). Laryngeal thrush, laryngeal mycosis, fungal laryngitis. Changes following prolonged intu¬bation, acquired laryngeal stenosis. Papilloma of the larynx (upper respiratory papillomatosis). Vocal cord polyp, laryngeal fibroma. Laryngeal cysts. Laryngocele. Laryngeal cleft. Laryngomalacia (chondromalacia laryngis, soft, flaccid larynx). Atresia, severe stenosis of the glottis. Laryngeal diaphragm (congenital laryngeal web). Vocal cord paralysis (abductor [recurrent] and adductor paresis). Dysphonia. Hyperbilirubinemia. Down syndrome (mongolism). Cri du chat syndrome (cat’s cry disease). Myasthenia gravis. Amyotonia congenita (congenital muscular atony, Oppenheim’s¬ disease). Polyradiculitis (Guillain-Barré syndrome). Pseudocroup (subglottic laryngitis). Subglottic stenosis. Subglottic hemangioma. Contusion (injury) of the larynx.
Tracheal changes - J. Hirschberg, P. Koltai, I. Lellei, K. Hirschberg
Congenital goiter. Vascular anomalies. Paratracheal or parabronchial lymphadenitis (thoracic lymph node enlargement, lymphadenopathy, bronchial rupture). Mediastinal tumors. Tracheomalacia (functional stenosis of the trachea, soft trachea). Circumscribed congenital anomaly of the tracheal cartilages (individual cartilage deformity). Tracheal dyskinesia. Rigid trachea stenosis (congenital fibrous stricture). Stenosing laryngotracheobronchitis (sicca maligna). Foreign bodies in airways.
Disorders affecting the bronchi and the lungs - J. Hirschberg, G. Katona
Wheezy bronchitis, asthma.
Pertussis (whooping cough)
Chapter 8. The Diagnostic Value of the Conventional Examination Methods and of Acoustic Analysis - J. Hirschberg, T. Szende, I. Lellei
Classification in terms of the acoustic substrate. Classification in terms of the location of changes. Classification on grounds of etiology. The diagnostic values of clinical (imaging) methods in the evaluation of infant cry.
Pharyngeal stridors. Laryngeal stridors. Subglottic and tracheal stridors
Chapter 9. Summary - J. Hirschberg, T. Szende, P. Koltai, A. Illényi
ABOUT THE EDITORS
Jeno Hirschberg, M.D., Ph.D., DSc, Professor, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Bronchology, Budai Children’s Hospital, Budapest, Hungary.
Peter Koltai, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.A.A.P., Professor and Chief, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Tamás Szende, Ph.D., DSc, Professor and Head, Department of General Linguistics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Piliscsaba, Hungary.
András Illényi, DPhys, Ph.D., Professor, Director and Head, Department of Telecommunication and Mediainformatics, Technical University, Budapest.
István Lellei, M.D., Chief and Head, Department of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology and Bronchology, Budai Children’s Hospital, Budapest.
Zsolt Garay, M.D., Department of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology and Bronchology, Budai Children’s Hospital, Budapest.
Secondary: Speech-Language Pathology