This short, pithy book - addressed to primary care physicians, will also be invaluable to those studying urology, prior to taking any professional exam. Urological problems are so common as to represent a significant burden for many care physicians and GPs in their everyday practice worldwide. A major concern is how far to go themselves in the diagnosis and treatment of a urological diseases and when to refer the patient for specialist care. Problem Based Urology will provide an easy and user friendly tool to help in decision making on the main urological problems and the most appropriate timing for referral to specialist care. Within each chapter, one or more flow charts will help the reader, step-by-step, to formulate the most likely diagnosis on the basis of findings from medical history, examination and investigations and to start an appropriate first line treatment or to refer the patient to the specialist where appropriate. Each step of the flow chart will be explained in legends consecutively numbered at the bottom of the flow chart diagram. Besides, each chapter will be enriched with tables reporting the most common diseases to be accounted in the differential diagnosis, treatment choices manageable by the primary care physician or GP.
1. Flank Pain/Renal Colic.- 2. Lower Abdominal Pain/Suprapubic Pain.- 3. Swollen and/or Painful Groin.- 4. Swollen and/or Painful Scrotum.- 5. Empty Scrotum.- 6. Priapism.-7. Swollen Penis.- 8. Penile Ulcer and Balanitis.- 9. Gross (Visible) Haematuria.- 10. Urethral Bleeding.- 11. Hemospermia.- 12. Genitourinary Fever in Adults.- 13. Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.- 14. Male Dysuria/Prostate Pain.- 15. Female Dysuria/Urinary Tract Infection.- 16. Oliguria.- 17. Erectile Dysfunction.- 18. Male Factor Infertility.- 19. Female Urinary Incontinence.- 20. Male Urinary Incontinence. 21. Enlarged Prostate (On Digital Rectal Examination or Ultrasound).- 22. Renal Stone on USS/X-ray.- 23. Renal Mass.- 24. Raised Prostate-Specific Antigen.- 25. Raised Serum Creatinine/Reduced Estimated Glomerular Filtrate.- 26. Microscopic (Non-Visible) Haematuria.- 27. How to Interpret Findings of a Urine Cytology Test.- 28. Leukocytes in the Urine.- 29. Bacteria in the Urine.- 30. How to Interpret the Results of an MSU Culture Test.