Forensic engineers often specialize in a particular area such as structures, fires, or accident reconstruction. However, the nature of the work often requires broad knowledge in the interrelated areas of physics, chemistry, biomechanics, and engineering. Covering cases as varied as assessment of workplace accidents to the investigation of Halliburton in the BP oil spill, Forensic Engineering Fundamentals is a comprehensive introduction to the many diverse facets of the field that forensic engineers must be familiar with in their practice. Topics include The role of the forensic engineer Structures, structural distress, and the importance of standards and codes The failure of appliances-the cause of many water- or fire-related losses Slips, trips, and falls of pedestrians and the accessibility of walking surfaces Industrial incidents involving loss of equipment, injury and loss of life, as well as OSHA and MSHA regulations Standard accident reconstruction involving vehicles Electrical incidents and lightning and the effect of electrical energy on the human body Analysis of fires with an emphasis on thermodynamics, testing, and simulation Carbon monoxide incidents and common fire suppression and warning systems, as well as the various NFPA codes Probability and uncertainty, with some basic calculations available to the forensic engineer Applicable standards and protocols that have developed over the years to protect life and property Offering readers real-world experience drawn from the authors' 25 years of experience, this volume assists newcomers to the field in understanding the engineering basics underlying the cases they will encounter in their practice. It also serves as a reliable reference for those confronted with issues outside their area of expertise.
Introduction Structural Distress Substandard Design and Construction Some Structural Basics Structures: Mechanics and Force Systems Newton's Laws and Equilibrium Work and Energy: Conservation Principles Properties of Areas Structures Mechanics or Strength of Materials Allowable Stress and Strength Design Methods Chimney Damage Truss Analysis Example: Truss Failure Dynamic Loading Wind Damage Snow, Hail, and Rain Stresses on Cylindrical Pressure Vessels Load Analysis on Pilings Strain Foundations Blasting and Earth Movement Introduction to Soil Behavior Techniques of Subsurface Investigations Landslides Identification of Rocks Supporting Capacity of Earth Formations Stability of Natural Slopes Atterberg Limits Subsidence Earthquakes Foundations Blasting Damage Heavy Equipment Vibrations Wave Pressure Mold and Environmental Problems Airborne Particles Mold Radon Gases Ventilation Building Materials Asbestos Electromagnetics Vibrations and Sound Temperature Ergonomics and Illumination Water-Related Losses Fluid Statics and Dynamics Open Channel Flow Hydrology and Water Runoff Groundwater Plumbing and Fittings Water Hammer Soils and the Water Table Appliances and Equipment Failures Kitchen and Household Appliances HVAC Systems Pumps, Generators, and Motors Boilers Dissolution of Aluminum Welding Failures Cars Interpreting Electrical Activity Component Fracture Mechanics Gouge Spacing Broken Pole Analysis Slips and Falls Walkway Safety Standard of Care American Disabilities Act Testing of Slip Resistance of Walking Surfaces Force Required to Pull a Dolly Biomechanics of Falls Sight Distance for Pedestrians Pedestrians and Trains Departure Sight Distance Calculations Moving Vehicle Sight Distance Calculations Calculation of Train Speed Human Injuries and the Strength of Human Tissue Bone Fractures Transverse Fracture of Long Bones Head Injury Head Injury Criterion Compilation of Studies Involving Occupant Kinematics and Vehicle Impacts Biomechanics of Injury Vehicular Collisions with Pedestrians or Bicyclists Internal Organ Injuries Knee Injuries Injuries of the Hand, Wrist, and Elbow Teeth Injuries Lower Leg Injuries Shoulder Injuries Hip Injuries Industrial and Construction Accidents Equipment Losses Injuries and Death Accident Reconstruction Introduction Basic Principles of Physics Introduction to Energy Methods Momentum Methods Electrical Incidents and Lightning Electrical Distribution Systems Some Basic Equations Switch Failure Current in a Bus Bar Current in a Solid Wire Conductor Testing of Transistors and Electrical Components Lightning Impulse Voltages Electrocutions Low-Voltage Electrocutions Swimming Pool Electrocutions Animal Testing Medium-Voltage Electrocutions High-Voltage Electrocutions Human Conductivity Response of Human Tissue to Electrical Stimulation Electrical Modeling of the Human Body Fires Thermodynamic Principles Systems and Processes Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Enthalpy Combustion Hydrocarbons Explosive Limits Flash Points Transfer of Heat First Law of Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy Heat Flow Explosive Characteristics Flow of Gas through a Pipe Thermal Conductivity, Convectivity, and Radiation Gas Can Burn Live Burns House Fires Car Fires Miscellaneous Losses Carbon Monoxide Chains and Hooks Examination of Vehicle Lightbulbs and Filaments Defeating Locks Vehicle Computer Interrogation Engine Wear Fire Suppression Systems Probability, Sensitivity, and Uncertainty Sensitivity and Uncertainty Probability and Statistics Standards Protocol for Forensic Investigations Standard Guide for Forensic Engineering Inspections and Investigations ASTM Standards FMV Standards SAE Standards Relevant Construction Standards NFPA Standards International Standards Appendix A: Values of Fundamental Constants (MKS Units) Appendix B: Acronyms Appendix C: Conversion Factors Bibliography