Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and presents a major challenge to policy makers and clinicians alike. Recent research has suggested that obesity has its origins in early life and that early diet can programme a developing fetus’ and young infant’s future susceptibility to obesity. This volume contains recent findings presented at the International Conference on Early Nutrition Programming and Health Outcomes in Later Life: Obesity and Beyond - a satellite meeting of the 15th European Congress on Obesity, held in Budapest in April 2007. Basic scientific research, data from epidemiological studies and clinical trial results were all presented during the programme.
This volume includes articles discussing the evidence for an effect of early nutrition programming on later obesity and cardiovascular risk; the growing evidence for an intergenerational cycle of obesity; the role of maternal leptin in programming appetite; possible cellular mechanisms for altered energy balance, including mitochondrial programming and the effects of regulators of metabolism; and how epigenetic changes might be the fundamental underlying mechanism explaining programming effects. Consumer understanding of the concept of early nutrition programming and the extent to which early nutrition programming is taken into account in infant feeding policies are also discussed.
Written for: Paediatricians, obstetricians, nutritionists, epidemiologists, research scientists, food and dietetic industry, public health policy makers, breastfeeding and obesity interest groups
Table of contents
Preface, Berthold Koletzko; 1. Challenges and novel approaches in the epidemiological study of early life influences on later disease, George Davey Smith , Sam Leary, Andy Ness, Debbie A Lawlor; 2. Infant feeding and later obesity risk, Berthold Koletzko et al.; 3. Developmental origins of osteoporosis: The role of maternal nutrition, Cyrus Cooper, Nicholas Harvey, Zoe Cole, Mark Hanson, Elaine Dennison; 4. Does having been breastfed in infancy influence lipid profile in later life?: a review of the literature, Richard M Martin, George Davey Smith; 5. The early origins of atherosclerosis, Atul Singhal ; 6. Do LCPUFAs influence cardiovascular function in early childhood?, JS Forsyth; 7. Effects of supplementing LCPUFA to the diet of pregnant women: data from RCT, T Decsi; 8. The early origins of later obesity: Pathways and mechanisms, IC McMillen, L Rattanatray, JA Duffield, JL Morrison, SM MacLaughlin, S Gentili and BS Muhlhausler; 9. Developmental origins of obesity: programming of food intake or physical activity?, David S Gardner and P Rhodes; 10. Nutrient-gene interactions in early life programming: Leptin in breast milk prevents obesity later on in life, Andreu Palou, Juana Sánchez, and Catalina Picó; 11. Early nutrition and later obesity: animal models provide insights into mechanisms, Cornelia C. Metges ; 12. Tissue specific adaptations to nutrient supply: more than just epigenetics?, Michael E Symonds, Terence Stephenson, David S Gardner and Helen Budge; 13. Epigenetics – potential contribution to fetal programming, J.C. Mathers and J.A. McKay; 14. Programming of impaired insulin secretion versus sensitivity: Cause or effect?, Brigitte Reusens and Claude Remacle; 14. PGC-1ß: a co-activator that sets the tone for both basal and stress-stimulated mitochondrial activity, Christopher J. Lelliott & Antonio Vidal-Puig; 15. Pharmacological and gene modification-based models for studying the impact of perinatal metabolic disturbances in adult life, Francesc Villarroya et al.; 16. Adipose tissue – muscle interactions and the metabolic effects of n-3 LCPUFA - implications for programming effects of early diet, Petra Janovska and Jan Kopecky; 17. Trans isomeric and LCPUFA are inversely correlated in erythrocyte membrane lipids at mid-gestation, T. Marosvölgyi, C. Campoy, B. Koletzko, É. Szabó, V. Jakobik, M. Jimenez, H. Demmelmair, T. Decsi; 18. Early growth and body composition in infancy, Sirinuch Chomtho, Jonathan CK Wells, Peter S Davies, Alan Lucas and Mary S Fewtrell; 19. Obesity related programming statements in infant feeding policies in five European countries, Elena Martin-Bautista et al.; 20. Obesity related programming statements in materials on infant feeding aimed at parents in five European countries, Julia von Rosen-von Hoewel et al.; 21. Infant feeding and the concept of early nutrition programming: A comparison of qualitative data from four European countries, Schmid MA et al.; 22. What is the EARNEST Dissemination and Exploitation Consensus Panel (DECP)?, Margaret Ashwell and Anne de la Hunty; Subject Index