Anatomically, the perirhinal cortex sits at the boundary between the medial temporal lobe and the ventral visual pathway. It has prominent interconnections not only with both these systems, but also with a wide range of unimodal and polymodal association areas. Consistent with these diverse projections, neurophysiological studies reveal a multidimensional set of mnemonic signals that include stimulus familiarity, within- and between-domain associations, associative recall, and delay-based persistence. This wide range of perirhinal memory signals not only includes signals that are largely unique to the perirhinal cortex (i.e., object familiarity), consistent with dual-process theories, but also includes a range of signals (i.e., associative flexibility and recall) that are strongly associated with the hippocampus, consistent with single-process theories. These neurophysiological findings have important implications for bridging the gap between single-process and dual-process models of medial temporal lobe function.