Table of Contents
Part I. Fundamental Concepts
- Chapter 1. The Assessment and Modification Model
Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, John Bloomfield, PhD, and Bruce C. Elliott, PhD
The Assessment and Modification Model
Sports Science Theoretical Base
Observation and Assessment
Comparison and Profiling
- Chapter 2. Talent Identification and Profiling
Jason P. Gulbin, PhD, and Timothy R. Ackland, PhD
Part II. Applied Anatomy: Assessment and Modification of Physical Capacities
- Chapter 3. Absolute Body Size
Timothy S. Olds, PhD, and Grant R. Tomkinson, PhD
The Principle of Morphological Optimization
Normative Data on Absolute Body Size in Sportspeople
The Physics of Absolute Body Size
Secular Trends in Absolute Body Size
Consequences of the Search for Size
- Chapter 4. Somatotype in Sport
J. E. Lindsay Carter, PhD, and Timothy R. Ackland, PhD
Development of Somatotype Rating Methods
The Heath-Carter Anthropometric Method
Somatotype and Sport Performance
Desirable Body Types for High Level Performance
Exceptions to the Standard Body Shape and Size
Sport Selection and Somatotype
Changes in Body Type During Growth
- Chapter 5. Body Composition in Sport
Deborah A. Kerr, PhD, and Arthur D. Stewart, PhD
Factors Affecting Body Composition
Body Composition Assessment
Body Composition and Sports Performance
Nutritional Changes to Modify Body Composition
- Chapter 6. Proportionality
Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, and J. Hans De Ridder, PhD
Significance of Proportionality Modification in Sport
Effect of Growth on Proportionality
Proportionality Applied to Sport Performance
Proportionality Characteristics of Athletes
- Chapter 7. Posture
Peter Hamer, PhD, and John Bloomfield, PhD
Evolution and the Development of Posture
Changes in Posture During Growth
Maintenance of Posture
Advantages of Good Posture
Postural Diversity within Individuals
Posture and its Relationship to Somatotype
Static and Dynamic Posture
Desirable Postures for High Level Sport Performance
Modifying Posture and Technique to Improve Performance
- Chapter 8. Strength
Michael McGuigan, PhD, and Nicholas Ratamess, PhD
Relationship Between Strength, Power and Strength-Endurance
Value of Strength in Sport
Muscle Structure and Function
Muscle Mechanics and Neuromuscular Considerations
Factors Affecting the Development of Muscular Function
General Training Principles
Strength Training Program Design
Strength Training Methods and Techniques
Strength-Endurance Training Methods
Strength Training, Injuries and Injury Prevention
- Chapter 9. Power
Robert U. Newton, PhD, and William J. Kraemer, PhD
Maximal Power Production Defined
Why is Maximal Power Important?
Factors Contributing to Maximal Power Output
Performance Qualities Contributing to Power
Assessment of Muscular Power
Training Methods for the Development of Power
- Chapter 10. Speed
John Cronin, PhD, and Anthony J. Blazevich, PhD
Biomechanical and Anthropometric Considerations
- Chapter 11. Flexibility
Patria Hume, PhD, and Duncan Reid MHSc (Hons)
Definitions of Stretching and the Resulting Flexibility-Extensibility
Anatomy and Physiology Components Targeted for Stretching
Types of Stretching Procedure and Technique
Mechanisms of Stretching
Does Stretching Help Improve Sport Performance or Reduce Risk of Injury?
Other Factors Can Affect the Effectiveness of Stretching and the Resulting Flexibility
How do you Measure Improvement in Flexibility?
- Chapter 12. Balance and Agility
David Lloyd, PhD, Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, and Jodie Cochrane, PhD
Factors Affecting Balance
Improving Balance for Sport
Protection from Joint Injury
Factors Affecting Agility
Improving Agility for Sport
- Chapter 13. Modifying Physical Capacities
Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, Deborah A. Kerr, PhD, and Robert U. Newton, PhD
Resistance Training Guidelines
Resistance Training Exercises
Training Programs for Specific Sports
Part III. Biomechanics: Assessment and Modification of Sport Techniques
- Chapter 14. Analysis of Sports Performance
Bruce Elliott, PhD, and Duane Knudson, PhD
Models of Technique Analysis
Qualitative or Subjective Analysis
- Chapter 15. Image Analysis in Sports Performance
Jacqueline A. Alderson, PhD, and Bruce C. Elliott, PhD
Errors in Motion Analysis
Planar Video Analysis
3D Motion Analysis
- Chapter 16. The Application of Biomechanics in the Improvement of
Bruce C. Elliott, PhD, and Damian Farrow, PhD
Instructional Approaches in Technique Modification
Preparation of Athletes Involved in High-Speed Activities
Biomechanical Considerations in Reducing Sporting Injury Rates
- Chapter 17. Mechanics in Sport: Specific Applications
Bruce C. Elliott, PhD, Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, and Jacqueline A. Alderson, PhD
Newton’s Laws of Motion
Linking of Linear and Angular Motion
Moments of Force and Torque
Coefficient of Restitution
Coordination and Summation of Body Segments
Part IV. Practical Example
- Chapter 18. A Practical Example: Pole Vault
Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, Andrew Lyttle, PhD, and Bruce C. Elliott, PhD
Assessment of Physical Capacity and Intervention Program
Biomechanical Assessment and Technique Modification
Influence on Performance
A textbook for students enrolled in sports science curriculums who have already completed a structural anatomy course, including future physical education teachers and coaches. A reference for coaches, physical education teachers, and sport scientists with an interest in studying components of athletic ability.
About the Product
Applied Anatomy and Biomechanics in Sport, Second Edition, concentrates on the various ways in which an athlete—whether the average participant or the elite competitor—can modify technique to achieve optimal performance. Its emphasis on athletic assessment and physical capacity modification provides a unique perspective that will help coaches and other sport professionals appraise the body structure of their athletes so that strengths can be fully utilized and weaknesses improved. The text also considers growth, development, and gender, and it makes readers aware of mechanical overstresses that can impair performance and cause injuries.
The second edition has undergone a complete revision and is designed with practical application in mind. It includes chapter contributions by respected sport scientists presenting recent research and cutting-edge information on topics such as:
- the development of improved training methods to increase explosive power,
- the use of elastic energy in the development of power and speed,
- the modification of strength and body composition to improve performance, and
- the application of proportionality and posture to sport performance.
Applied Anatomy and Biomechanics in Sport relies on current research findings and proven methods in developing physical athletic performance to help readers learn to recognize and use appropriate methods to develop optimal physical qualities for skilled performance. The text categorizes 30 international sports into nine distinct groups organized by common features: racket sports; aquatic sports; gymnastics and power sports; track, field, and cycling; mobile field sports; set field sports; court sports; contact field sports; and martial arts. Within each group, techniques that improve performance are analyzed with specific examples given from a variety of international coaches.
- The applied nature of the content is enhanced through a building-block approach that facilitates the understanding of the elements of human performance and how the interaction of those elements can be fine-tuned. The text employs a four-part structure:
- Fundamental Concepts relate to assessment and modification of an athlete’s body structure, physical capacity, and technique, as well as talent identification and profiling.
- Applied Anatomy provides both a theoretical framework for valid and reliable assessment and evidence-based modification of an athlete’s body structure and physical capacity.
- Applied Biomechanics explains how the analysis of sport technique may be used to improve athletic performance.
- A Practical Example uses in-depth analysis to provide a specific case for assessment of physical capacity and biomechanics of an athlete, the intervention program and technique modification employed, and the resultant influence on the athlete’s performance.
Applied Anatomy and Biomechanics in Sport covers the latest assessment techniques used by exercise and sport science specialists to evaluate human physiques, physical capacities, and sport techniques. Using this text, readers can integrate and apply the elements of body structure, body composition, assessment, physiology, and biomechanics to assess current capabilities and enhance the performance of athletes.
About the Editor
Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, is a professor of functional anatomy and biomechanics in the School of Exercise, Sport Science, and Health at the University of Western Australia. His research interests include the mechanics of human movement with themes spanning exercise rehabilitation, high-performance sport, and human performance in industry. Dr. Ackland has published more than 70 peer-reviewed papers as well as three academic books and 20 book chapters. Currently, Dr. Ackland is a director of Sports Medicine Australia and is on the review boards of four international journals. He recently served as the scientific chair for the fifth IOC World Congress on Sport Sciences for the 2000 Sydney Olympics and as the 2001 conference cochair for Sports Medicine Australia in Perth. Since 1991, he has been the principal of Ackland Marshall and Associates, Ergonomics Consultants.
Bruce C. Elliott, PhD, FACHPER, FASMF, FISBS, FAAKPE, is the senior biomechanist and head of the School of Human Movement and Exercise Science at the University of Western Australia. He has a keen interest in performance optimization and injury reduction in sport and has published more than 170 refereed articles, 50 refereed conference proceedings, and 40 books or book chapters in this general area. He is an editorial board member of Sports Biomechanics, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, Journal of Sports Sciences, and the International Journal of Sport and Health Sciences.
Elliott is a sought-after international speaker on the application of biomechanics to sport. He was the keynote speaker at the first World Congress on Racket Sports, the first World Congress of Cricket, and the third World Congress of Medicine and Science in Tennis. A fellow of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, Sports Medicine Australia, and the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education, he was also the inaugural chair of the Western Australian Institute of Sport and inaugural vice-president of the Australian Association of Exercise and Sport Science. In addition, Elliot served as the scientific chair for the fifth IOC World Congress on Sport Sciences and was the organizer of the research projects at the Sydney 2000 Olympics. He was the president-elect of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports and sits on the coaching advisory panel of Tennis Australia and the research board of Cricket Australia.
John Bloomfield, PhD, is an emeritus professor at the University of Western Australia and a former director of the Hollywood Functional Rehabilitation Clinic at Hollywood Private Hospital in Perth. He left Australia in 1960 on a Fulbright scholarship to pursue postgraduate study at the University of Oregon in the United States. After receiving his PhD in 1968, he returned to Australia to take a position at the University of Western Australia.
Throughout his notable career, Bloomfield has served as president of Sports Medicine Australia, chairman of the Australian Sports Science Council, chairman of the Australian Institute of Sport, and cochairman of the Australian Sports Commission. He has authored more than 100 scientific papers and five books in sport and sport science as well as three major government reports on the development of sport in Australia. He was a National Surf Lifesaving champion and elite-level swimming coach in Australia and the United States. Bloomfield’s research interests and experiences have led him to be a highly regarded lecturer and consultant in 22 countries.
In 1979, Bloomfield was awarded Citizen of the Year in Western Australia and, in 1982, he received Member of the Order of Australia.