The latest edition of Biochemistry Primer for Exercise Science provides upper-level undergraduate and graduate students with an understanding of the essential concepts of biochemistry—molecular biology, basic chemistry, metabolism, and transcription regulation—in an easy-to-understand format. This text builds on the success of the previous edition by offering new topics, new organization of chapters, greater interpretation and integration of key concepts, and new and improved illustrations that clarify the content.
Biochemistry Primer for Exercise Science, Third Edition is the first volume in Human Kinetics’ Primers in Exercise Science Series. With its updated information based on new research and ideas from exercise science and molecular biology and its greater interpretation of biochemistry in the context of the active human, this volume is the only text of its kind in this field. Students trained in traditional exercise physiology can understand basic concepts of energy, but without the knowledge gained from this book they might lack the ability to apply these principles to everyday life.
New information and approaches in this book include the following:
- Reorganized chapters give greater attention to the mechanism behind the concepts. Basic metabolic pathways and mechanisms are outlined and the role of exercise in modulating those pathways and mechanisms is addressed.
- A deeper and more thorough integration of the topics adds context and aids in comprehension.
- New review questions with answers are provided.
- A section on oxidative stress and its implications to lifestyle and health are included.
- A new section covers signal transduction that leads to changes in the expression of genes and in the amounts of specific proteins.
- A thoroughly revamped chapter covers bioenergetics with an overview of energy systems and their role in exercise. This is followed by the more rigorous thermodynamics concepts.
In addition, each chapter addresses the newest, most sophisticated information, discusses future research directions, and contains key points to reinforce understanding. The book also provides a list of abbreviations, conveniently located on the inside front cover, to help the reader become familiar with commonly used biochemistry terms; chapter summaries; a glossary; and a comprehensive reference list to help students absorb and apply the content.
This new edition fully integrates the concepts of biochemistry and physiology of exercise and provides critical information on how genes are controlled. In doing so, it melds the fields of human nutrition, physiology, and biochemistry into a more unifying science, and it presents students with the biochemistry content they need in order to understand the molecular aspects of human physical activity. The text helps prepare students for what lies ahead, and it is a great tool for professionals in related fields who want to learn about the biochemistry of exercise.
Each volume in Human Kinetics' Primers in Exercise Science Series, provides students and professionals alike with a non-intimidating basic understanding of the science behind each topic in the series, and where appropriate, how that science is applied. These books are written by leading researchers and teachers in their respective areas of expertise to present in an easy-to-understand manner essential concepts in dynamic, complex areas of scientific knowledge. The books in the series are ideal for researchers and professionals that need to obtain background in an unfamiliar scientific area or as an accessible basic reference for those that will be returning to the material often.
About the Author
Michael E. Houston, PhD, is a professor in human nutrition, foods, and exercise at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia. Besides writing the first two editions of this book, Houston has written more than 100 refereed journal publications dealing with biochemical and nutritional implications to exercise. He has taught biochemistry of exercise for more than 35 years and has conducted extensive research in exercise. In 2003 he received the Honour Award from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. In his leisure time he enjoys weight training and road and mountain biking.
Table of Contents
Part I Essential Background
Chapter 1. Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
- The Nature of Amino Acids
- Characteristics of Peptides
- Structure of Proteins
Chapter 2. Enzymes
- Enzymes As Catalysts
- Rates of Enzymatic Reactions
- Provision of Reactive Groups by Cofactors
- Classification of Enzymes
- Oxidations and Reductions
- Regulation of Enzyme Activity
- Measurement of Enzyme Activity
Part II Metabolism
Chapter 3. Energy Systems and Bioenergetics
- Energy Requirements of Skeletal Muscle
- Energy-Rich Phosphates
- Energy Systems
Chapter 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation
- Overview of Metabolism
- The Citric Acid Cycle
- Electron Transfers
- Coupled Phosphorylation
- Regulation of Oxidative Phosphorylation
- Quantification of Redox Reactions
- Oxidants and Antioxidants
Chapter 5. Carbohydrate Metabolism
- Cellular Uptake of Glucose
- Phosphorylation of Glucose
- Glycogen Metabolism
- Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism
- Lactate Metabolism
- Oxidation of Cytoplasmic NADH
- The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
- Signaling Pathways
Chapter 6. Lipid Metabolism
- Types of Lipids
- Fat Stores
- Oxidation of Fatty Acids
- Oxidation of Ketone Bodies
- Synthesis of Fatty Acids
- Fat As a Fuel for Exercise
- Metabolism During Exercise: Fat Versus Carbohydrate
- Adipose Tissue As an Endocrine Tissue
Chapter 7. Amino Acid Metabolism
- Overview of Amino Acid Metabolism
- Degradation of Amino Acids
- The Urea Cycle
- Fate of Amino Acid Carbon Skeletons
- Amino Acid Metabolism During Exercise
- Additional Roles for Amino Acids
Part III Transcription, Protein Synthesis, and Degradation
Chapter 8. Gene Transcription and Its Control
- Types of RNA
- The Genetic Code
- Regulation of Transcription
Chapter 9. Protein Synthesis and Degradation
- Posttranscriptional Modifications of RNA
- Regulation of Translation
- Posttranslational Processing of Polypeptides
- Protein Degradation
Answers to Review Questions
About the Author
A supplementary course text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in exercise physiology, exercise biochemistry, and sport nutrition. Also a reference for professionals in those fields.