Widely used and referenced, David Winter’s Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement is a classic examination of techniques used to measure and analyze all body movements as mechanical systems, including such everyday movements as walking. It fills the gap in human movement science area where modern science and technology are integrated with anatomy, muscle physiology, and electromyography to assess and understand human movement.
In light of the explosive growth of the field, this new edition updates and enhances the text with:
- Expanded coverage of 3D kinematics and kinetics
- New materials on biomechanical movement synergies and signal processing, including auto and cross correlation, frequency analysis, analog and digital filtering, and ensemble averaging techniques
- Presentation of a wide spectrum of measurement and analysis techniques
- Updates to all existing chapters
- Basic physical and physiological principles in capsule form for quick reference
An essential resource for researchers and student in kinesiology, bioengineering (rehabilitation engineering), physical education, ergonomics, and physical and occupational therapy, this text will also provide valuable to professionals in orthopedics, muscle physiology, and rehabilitation medicine. In response to many requests, the extensive numerical tables contained in Appendix A: "Kinematic, Kinetic, and Energy Data" can also be found at the following Web site: www.wiley.com/go/biomechanics
1 Biomechanics as an Interdiscipline.
- 1.0 Introduction.
- 1.1 Measurement, Description, Analysis, and Assessment.
- 1.2 Biomechanics and its Relationship with Physiology and Anatomy.
- 1.3 Scope of the Textbook.
- 1.4 References.
2 Signal Processing.
- 2.0 Introduction.
- 2.1 Auto- and Cross-Correlation Analyses.
- 2.2 Frequency Analysis.
- 2.3 Ensemble Averaging of Repetitive Waveforms.
- 2.4 References.
- 3.0 Historical Development and Complexity of Problem.
- 3.1 Kinematic Conventions.
- 3.2 Direct Measurement Techniques.
- 3.3 Imaging Measurement Techniques.
- 3.4 Processing of Raw Kinematic Data.
- 3.5 Calculation of Other Kinematic Variables.
- 3.6 Problems Based on Kinematic Data.
- 3.7 References.
- 4.0 Scope of Anthropometry in Movement Biomechanics.
- 4.1 Density, Mass, and Inertial Properties.
- 4.2 Direct Experimental Measures.
- 4.3 Muscle Anthropometry.
- 4.4 Problems Based on Anthropometric Data.
- 4.5 References.
5 Kinetics: Forces and Moments of Force.
- 5.0 Biomechanical Models.
- 5.1 Basic Link-Segment Equations—the Free-Body Diagram.
- 5.2 Force Transducers and Force Plates.
- 5.3 Bone-on-Bone Forces During Dynamic Conditions.
- 5.4 Problems Based on Kinetic and Kinematic Data.
- 5.5 References.
6 Mechanical Work, Energy, and Power.
- 6.0 Introduction.
- 6.1 Efficiency.
- 6.2 Forms of Energy Storage.
- 6.3 Calculation of Internal and External Work.
- 6.4 Power Balances at Joints and Within Segments.
- 6.5 Problems Based on Kinetic and Kinematic Data.
- 6.6 References.
7 Three-Dimensional Kinematics and Kinetics.
- 7.0 Introduction.
- 7.1 Axes Systems.
- 7.2 Marker and Anatomical Axes Systems.
- 7.3 Determination of Segment Angular Velocities and Accelerations.
- 7.4 Kinetic Analysis of Reaction Forces and Moments.
- 7.5 Suggested Further Reading.
- 7.6 References.
8 Synthesis of Human Movement—Forward Solutions.
- 8.0 Introduction.
- 8.1 Review of Forward Solution Models.
- 8.2 Mathematical Formulation.
- 8.3 System Energy.
- 8.4 External Forces and Torques.
- 8.5 Designation of Joints.
- 8.6 Illustrative Example.
- 8.7 Conclusions.
- 8.8 References.
9 Muscle Mechanics.
- 9.0 Introduction.
- 9.1 Force-Length Characteristics of Muscles.
- 9.2 Force-Velocity Characteristics.
- 9.3 Muscle Modeling.
- 9.4 References.
10 Kinesiological Electromyography.
- 10.0 Introduction.
- 10.1 Electrophysiology of Muscle Contraction.
- 10.2 Recording of the Electromyogram.
- 10.3 Processing of the Electromyogram,.
- 10.4 Relationship between Electromyogram and Biomechanical Variables.
- 10.5 References.
11 Biomechanical Movement Synergies.
- 11.0 Introduction.
- 11.1 The Support Moment Synergy.
- 11.2 Medial/Lateral and Anterior/Posterior Balance in Standing.
- 11.3 Dynamic Balance during Walking.
- 11.4 References.
A. Kinematic, Kinetic, and Energy Data.
Figure A.1 Walking Trial—Marker Locations and Mass and Frame Rate Information.
- Table A.1 Raw Coordinate Data (cm).
- Table A.2(a) Filtered Marker Kinematics—Rib Cage and Greater Trochanter (Hip).
- Table A.2(b) Filtered Marker Kinematics—Femoral Lateral Epicondyle (Knee) and Head of Fibula.
- Table A.2(c) Filtered Marker Kinematics—Lateral Malleolus (Ankle) and Heel.
- Table A.2(d) Filtered Marker Kinematics—Fifth Metatarsal and Toe.
- Table A.3(a) Linear and Angular Kinematics—Foot.
- Table A.3(b) Linear and Angular Kinematics—Leg.
- Table A.3(c) Linear and Angular Kinematics—Thigh.
- Table A.3(d) Linear and Angular Kinematics—1/2 HAT.
- Table A.4 Relative Joint Angular Kinematics—Ankle, Knee, and Hip.
- Table A.5(a) Reaction Forces and Moments of Force—Ankle and Knee.
- Table A.5(b) Reaction Forces and Moments of Force—Hip.
- Table A.6 Segment Potential, Kinetic, and Total Energies—Foot, Leg, Thigh, and1/2 HAT.
- Table A.7 Power Generation/Absorption and Transfer—Ankle, Knee, and Hip.
B. Units and Definitions Related to Biomechanical and Electromyographical Measurements.
- Table B.1 Base SI Units.
- Table B.2 Derived SI Units.
Considered one of the founding fathers of biomechanics as we know it today, DAVID A. WINTER, PHD, is Distinguished Professor Emeritus in Kinesiology at the University of Waterloo. His many distinctions include Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Canadian Society for Biomechanics. He was the first recipient of the Career Investigators Award by the Canadian Society of Biomechanics, the Lifetime Achievement Award by the Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis Society, and the Muybridge Medal by the International Society of Biomechanics. In addition to this text, he is author of three other texts on the biomechanics and electromyography of normal and pathological gait, balance during standing and walking, and signal processing in the movement sciences.