In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in studying infectious diseases, especially given the alarming increase in the numbers of emerging diseases now confronting medical and veterinary science.
Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers describes the progress in research and our understanding of these agents against a backdrop of continuing fear these viruses engender among health care workers and the public alike. It discusses how the study of these viral agents is directly applicable to other emerging diseases, particularly in relation to how containing these outbreaks requires a high degree of collaboration between different specialists.
Primarily aimed at healthcare workers, clinicians and microbiologists, this book provides a rapid overview as to the nature of these widely varying agents linked only by their propensity of causing serious human disease.
- 1. Introduction.
The burden of disease. The changing environment. The importance of surveillance. Viral haemorrhagic fevers at a glance. Scope of the book.
- 2. Flaviviruses.
Yellow Fever. Historial background. Epidemiology. Properties of Yellow Fever virus. Virus replication. Clinical disease. Diagnosis. Pathology. Prevention and control. Dengue. Epidemiology. Clinical features. Diagnosis. Properties of Dengue virus. Phylogenetic analyses and evolution. Pathogenesis. Treatment. Public health and the control of Dengue. Prospects for a Dengue vaccine. Kyasanur Forest Disease. Epidemiology. Clinical features. Diagnosis. Control. Alkhurma virus. Omsk haemorrhagic fever. Clinical features. Control. Summary.
- 3. Arenaviruses.
Properties of the virus. Nomenclature and natural history. Ultrastructure of Arenaviruses and infected cells. Chemical composition. Proteins. Nucleic acid. Arenavirus definition and the role of phylogenetic analysis. Arenavirus evolution, rodents and human disease. Replication. Epidemiology of Arenavirus infections. Diagnosis of human Arenavirus infections. Antigenic relationships. Clinical and pathological aspects. Immune response. Interferon. Antibodies. Cellular immunity. Persistent infection. Antibodies. Cell-mediated immunity. Pathology of Arenavirus infections: general features. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis. Lassa fever. History. The South American Haemorrhagic fevers. Diagnosis of Bolivian and Argentine Haemorrhagic fevers. Argentine Haemorrhagic fever (Junin Virus). Bolivian Haemorrhagic fever (Machupo Virus). Treatment. Brazilian Haemorrhagic fever (Sabiá Virus). Venezuela Haemorrhagic fever (Guanarito Virus). Emerging Arenavirus infections. Oliveros virus. Whitewater Arroyo virus and other isolates from the USA. Summary.
- 4. Bunyaviruses.
General properties of the Bunyaviruses. Classification. Structure. Genetic organisation. Replication. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Natural history. Molecular properties. Epidemiology. Human infections. Diagnosis. Pathology. Treatment and control. Rift Valley fever. Morphology and structure. Genetic properties and replication. Background and epidemiology. Rift Valley fever in livestock. Human infections. Diagnosis. Pathology. Animal models. Treatment. Vaccination against RVF. Hantaviruses. Classification. Natural history and the virus-host relationship. Epidemiology. Diagnosis. Clinical profiles. Pathology. Treatment. Hantaviruses and history. Summary.
- 5. Filoviruses.
Epidemiology. Marburg virus. Ebola virus. Is there an animal reservoir? Morphology and ultrastructure of infected cells. Physicochemical properties. Nucleic acid. Proteins. Variation among isolates. Replication. Diagnosis. Clinical features. Pathology. Treatment and prevention. Passive immunisation. Active immunisation. Summary.
- 6. Comment and Perspectives.
Global surveillance and control. Bioterrorism. The importance of diagnostics. Prospects for better treatment. Vaccine development. Conclusion.
- Appendix 1. Useful sources of information on the Worldwide Web. Appendix 2. Further reading. Appendix 3. Microbiological Containment - A Brief Overview. References.