Among industrial goods, pharmaceuticals are those for which the concept of
regulation has been most often applied. One reason for the pervasiveness of
the idea of regulation is that therapeutic agents are not like other goods.
Their sale and purchase constitute a very distinct market, the control and oversight
of which is viewed as a means to protect public health and considered as a duty
of the state since the early nineteenth century. Drug regulation thus usually
focuses on actions taken by political bodies to control the technical activities
of drug makers. As it developed into a large industry, drug making has become
the focus of highly visible conflicts between capitalistic firms, physicians,
patients, and public authorities. Other forms and targets of drug government
have emerged, which not only target sales and marketing, but deal with the entire
trajectory of drugs, i.e. research and development, mass production and preparation,
circulation and prescription and routine clinical work.
The essays assembled in this volume share the perspective that the historiography of science, technology, and medicine, therefore, needs a broader approach toward regulation; an approach taking into account the distinct social worlds involved in regulation, the forms of evidence and expertise mobilized, and the means of intervention chosen in order to tame drugs in factories, offices, consulting rooms and courts. Focusing on case studies, the volume explores the 'ways of regulating drugs', which surfaced in the 19th and 20th century, and play a central role in the present world of science, market and medicine.
List of Illustrations List of Tables Notes on Contributors General Introduction; J.P.Gaudilliere & V.Hess Secrets, Bureaucracy and the Public: Drug Regulation in Prussia in the 19th century; V.Hess Making Salvarsan. Experimental therapy and the development and marketing of Salvarsan at the interface between science, clinic, industry and public health; A.Huntelmann Professional and Industrial Regulation in France and Germany: the Trajectories of Plant Extracts; J.P.Gaudilliere Making Risks Visible: The Science, Politics and Regulation of Adverse Drug Reactions; H.Marks Regulating Drugs, Regulating Diseases: Consumerism and the U.S. Tolbutamide Controversy; J.Greene Thalidomide, Drug Safety Regulation and the British Pharmaceutical Industry: the Case of Imperial Chemical Industries; V.Quirke What's in a pill? On the Informational Enrichment of Anti-cancer Drugs; A.Cambrosio, P.Keating & A.Mogoutov Treating Health Risks or Putting Healthy Women at Risk: Controversies around Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer; I.Lowy AZT and Drug Regulatory Reform in the Late Twentieth Century US; D.Messner Professional, Industrial and Court Regulation of Drugs: The 1953 Stalinon Case and Pharmaceutical Reform in Postwar France; C.Bonah Managing Double Binds in the Pharmaceutical Prescription Market: The Case of Halcion; T.Pieters & S.Snelders Pharmaceutical Patent Law In-the-Making: Opposition and Legal Action by States, Citizens and Generics Laboratories in Brazil and India; M.Cassier